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Tpyflbi 

Olipcnil ECTECUflltCliyTllTEJIti 

iocpH HMHEPATOPCKOMt KasancKOM^ yHHBepcHieTt. 
ToMt XL, BBin. 4. 



\ ^ 



MyPABBH POCCIH 

(Fomlcariae iprii Kflssici). 



ii 

m 

iiiii! I 
il'i 



CncTeHaTHKa, reorpac^in H jiaHHUii fio 6iojioriH 
pyccKHx>^ HypaBBeBt. 

M. PyscKaro. 



HacTb BTopafl. 



— »=«-&-»<^s#^s^=-f^ - ^ 



K A 3 A H L. 

Ttino-JtHTorptk$ifl H m u e p a t o p c k a r o yHHsepcHTeTa 

19 7. 




Tpyflbi 

OI)ll|ECnil ECTECTBOHCflblTJTEMH 

npH HMHEPATOPCKOM^ KasaHCKOM'B yHHsepcHTeTt, 
ToM'b XL, BBin. 4. 



MyPABbH POCCIH 

(Fnlcariae luiirii issicl). 



CncTeMaTHKa, reorpa(J)iH h ^laHHtiH no ^iojioria 
pyccKHx"B MypaBieBi). 

M. PyacKaro. 



HaCTb BTopaH. 



K A 3 A E B. 

THiio-jiHTorpa(j)ia liMnepaTopcEaro yHHBepcHTeia 

19 7. 



mmum 



lle^aiaHO no oupefltjieuiio CCmecTBa EcTecTBOHcuHTaTejieft iipH II m ii e- 

|i a T p C K M "i KaSaHCKOMT, yilHBepCHK'T*. 

DpesufloHTi B. DoJiiHOBt 



HACTb BTOPAH 

lIpcaHCJioBie. Tpetbe a qetBepToe 4onoJiHeHia Kb cnn- 
CKV JiHTeparypbi no MvpaBbHM-b. Oomift oosopTj MHpMe- 
KOJiornqecKOH (|)ayHbi Poccin ci, oioreorpac|DnqecKOH 

TOHKH 3p'feHi3. 



HsyqeHie KaKO^-Jiafio rpynna jkhbothhxi bi CHCieMaTaqe- 
CK0M1. (Mop(|)0MaTHHecKOMi) H 6ioJioro-reorpa$HqecKOMi OTHorae- 
Hin Ha npocrpaHCTBi Bcefi PocciH, apH KpafiHcS o{)niBpHO(;Ta 
ea TcppHTOpiH, npe^CTaBjifleTx oieat fioiimofi h cJioataHS rpyA't, 
ocymecTBHMBjfi tojii.ko ro^aMH, bx ocoSeHaocxH Korja BsyqaeMaa 
rpynna atHBOiHHXT. npHaajiiJiemHTi zt, Maao HscJii^OBaHHHMi. 
Bee aio a HcnHTajiT> na ce5i, Korjia naiajii saanMaTtca asyie- 
HieMx pyccKHXt MypaBteBi. HecaoTpa aa BHainTe.ii>HHa tpyi- 
HOCTH Mai BcexaBH Bi Te^eaie fiojiie 10 jt'J&t^ y;i;ajiocJb lacTtio 
aa ocaoBaaia .UHnaHxi wscjiixoB&Bii, qacTBio fiaaroiapH ^oporoMy 
^t.ia Meaa coAiScxBiio n noMoiii,H HiKoropHxi JBn;!., coyyECTBeaao 
OTaocani;HXCfl K^ Tasoro pojia paSoxaM't, coSpaii. HSBicxaHS, 
cpaBHBxejibBo eme aeSoJbraoa Maxepiajn> no (|)aya'i MypaeteBi 
aamero oieqecTaa. PesyjbxaTH Mop(|)OMaxHqecKofi o6pa6oxKH 
9Toro Maxepiajia, paBHO KaK^ a CBeii;iaii.HHa ^taaana, Bacaiomia- 
ca reorpa(|)iB h sKo-aiojioriH ox^i'Sjii.hhxx $opMx, hsjiojechh mho2 
Bi nepBOS qacxH paSoxH, as^aaaoa bi 1905 ro^y (cm. M. Pys- 
cKia, MypaBBH Poccia a np., Tp. Kas. 06\u,. Ecx.-Hcbhx. 
T. XXXVIII, BHB. 4—6, 1905 r.). 

HacioaB^ifi xpyAi, npeACxaB^iatomiS npojiojiateaie nepBaro 
Bi. BB;^* 2-fi lacTB, jiaaeKO aepaaBofi eMy no o6%eMy, a bm^k* 
Bi BBj!i;y nocBaxBTb rjiasaHM'B o6pa30Mi. CBo;tK§ loro MaxepiaJta, 
KOTopBiS B-Ei aeoSoSmeaaoM'B BBji'i nsjoffieai bt, nepBofi qacxa. Ta- 
KZUT, o6paBOMi 9xa 2-a nacxs ecxB aaqxc aaoe KaKi saofoia- 
xejBaaa rjiaea nepBoS. Oaa co;^epatBX'B bt, ceGi ;i;oQOJiaHTeJii.HHfi 
CBBCOKi jiBxepaxypH no MypaBbflMt, BHme;tmefi rjiEBBHin. o6- 
pasoMx B% xeieaie nocjiiAHHXi ffsyxx Jiixi, a ofin^ifi fiiojioro- 
reorpa^aqecKifl onepKi MapMeKOJOrBHecKofl ^ayaa Poecia. 



_ o 



9T0Ti nocjiiAHia, cocToamifi rjasHBiM^ o^pasoMt hsx oSsopa 
o6maro reorpa(JiHqecKaro pacnpocTpaHeniH pyccKHxx MypaBteBi 
H pacnpe;itjieeia hxi. no xapaKtepHiiMi MicTHOCTaMi o6HTaHia 
HJii T. Has. cxai^iaMi; kt> cosajtiHiio OKasajica c^ihoikomx Kpai- 
KHMX, BO MHorHXx Micxaxx same aenoJiHUMX h otpubohhhm'b. 
OocToaxejifcCTBO aio onpasiiHBaeTca He;iocTaTKOiii cooTB'iTCTByK)- 
maro MaTcpiaaa, HMiiomaroca Bt mohxx pvKaxi h oCHOsaHHaro 
noiTH HCKjiK)iHTeiii.HO Ha JiaqHHXB H3CJii;i;oBaHiax'B, npn^eM-B a 
KoneqHO Bcer^a np0HHMa.11 bo BHHSiaHie ravume ^taanaa, ^oStiTHa 
/ipyrHMH jiHn,aMH. ITo Toa-iKe npniHafe a upHHy^Kieni Shii OTKa- 
saxbca OTx mhcjh BaacHHTt Bonpocs npoHCxoatAeniH Mapiie- 
KMoraiecEoS 4*^yHH Poccia, cqHiaa TaKyw sajtaiy noKa npe^E^e- 
BpeMeHHoi. 

Bx saKJUo^eHie a ^lo.iffieax saM'^iHTb, hto BunycKOMX bx 
CBiix HacToamet Mac™ a ae jiyiaaio orpaBHiHTb cbok) paOoxy 
no pyccEHMx MypaabaMx; nanpoTHEx, bx He;taJieKOMX 6y;iymeMX 
naAiiocb BunycTHXB h xpexBH) qacxB, Koxopaa 6y;iexx saBawqaxB 
BX ce6i KaBx AonojiHeHia jiByxx nepBHXx, xaEx h o6pa6oTKy 
MOHXx coScTBeHHO SioJiorHyecKBXx na.6AK)}^ema. 

12 4)eBpaM 1907 r. 
EasaHB. 



Tpeite flonojiHefiie hx cnncKy jiBTepaiypH no 

MypasBJSMi. 

916. Andrt', Ernest. Description d'un genre nouveau et de deux 

espfeces nouvelles de Fourmis d'Australie. Revue 
d'Entomologie, 1905, p. 205—208. 

917. Ashmead, W. H. Classification of the Ichneumon-flies of the 

Superfamiiy Ichneumonoidea. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., XXin, 1901, pp. 1-220. 

918. — A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, 

subfamilies, tribes and genera of the Ants, or the 
superfamiiy Formicoidea. Canadian Entomologist, 
XXXVlf, Novemb. 1905, p. 381—384 »). 

919. — Report upon the Aculeatae Hymenoptera of the 

Islands of St. Vincent and Grenada, mith addi- 
tions to the Parasitic Hymenoptera and a List 
of the described Hymenoptera of the West — Indies. 
Trans. Entom. Soc. London, 1900, P. II, (2, pp. 
299—367; Formicoidea: JM? 368—491;. 



') B'B aioft a Tf^eii.Tinym,e& CTaTBaxi Ashmead ape^JioxHai HOByro 
K-iaccH$HKauiio MypaBBeBi. Ohx imnisaeTh hxi bi oTAiiJiBHoe HSAceHeftcTBo 
(Superfarailia) Formicoidea, paenaaaiomeeca Ha cJitayamia 7 ceiceScTBi: Do- 
rylidae, Poneridae, Myrmicidae, Gryptoceridae, Odontomachidae, Dolichoderidae 
H Formicidae. Cm. ofii 9tomi EpHTHqecKiA saitl^iaHix K. 9 u e p h (925); Tanse 
y H. H. Kysueitosa bi era nepesoA'fe IQapna (963), ta^ npHBeAena h xa- 
paETepHCTHEa bthxi ceueficTBi Ha pyccsoMi asiiEli. BaxaHM'B HOBOBBejieHieH'B 
Bi EJiaecH^HEatiiR A s h m e a d'a aBjrireTcx rJiaBHUU'B odpa30Mi> ycTaHOB;ieHie 
caMofl rpynuH Formicoidea jn, KaiecTB* HaaceMetcTBa (hjih Formicodea, EaxK 
yAoSulie npeA.iaraeT'B ero HasiiBaTB H. &. E y 3 h e n o b i), PasAli'ieHie xe ea 
ceMeflcTsa, pasHo EaEi k ca»aa xapaETepHCTHsa Hi's uajio HSMfiHaeTi nojio- 
xeHie AJiJia, Tasi; Easi qero-JiH6o ocofieHHO HOBaro bi siy xapaETepHCiHEy 
Ashmead ne bhocht'b. 



920. Berlese, A. lUustrazione iconografica degli Acari mirmecofili.- 

Firenze, 1904. 

921. Bor.ttaHOBT., T. Bb MvpaBbHHOMi. uapciB-fe (O'lepKH )KH3hh h 

HpacoBT. MypaBteBT,). OpHpo^a h jieoah, 1892 — 
93 r. XeXe 6 — 10. 

922. Cook, O. F. The social organisation and breeding habits, of 

the Cattonprotecting Kelep of Guatemala. U. S. 
Departm. Agriculture, Bureau of entomology. Techn. 
Ser. JVa 10. Washingt. 1905. p. 38. 

923. Doflein, F. Beobachtungen an den Weberameisen. IMoiog. 

Centralbl., Bd. XX\', 1905, pp. 497—507. 

924. Emery, C. Note sur Prenolepis vividula Nyl. et sur la clas- 

sification des espt;ces du genre Prenolepis. Ana 
de la Soc. Entomolog. de Belgique, T. L, 1906, 
p. 130. 

925. — Uber W. H, Ashmeads neues System der Amei- 

sen. Zoolog. Anzeiger, Bd. XXIX, Nr. 24. 1906. 

926. — Rassegna critica delle specie paleartiche del genera 

Myrmecocystus. R. Accademia delle Scienze dell 
Tnst. di Bologna, Sess. 28 Genn. 1906. T. Ill 
(Serie VI), p. 173—187. 

927. — Deux Fourmis de I'Ambre de la Baltique. Bull. 

Soc. Entom. France, 1905, j\'o 13, p. 189. 

928. Escherich, K. Die Ameise. Schilderung ihrcr Lebensweise. 

Braunschweig, 1906. 

929. $ayceK'b, B- BiojionmecKiM HscJi-iAOBanix Bt SaKacniflcKofr 

oSjiacTH. 3an. no 06m. Eeorp. tl. P. leoip. 
05m. T. XXVII, 1906 (cTp. 142—145). 

930. Fielde, A. Tenacity of life in Ants. Biol. Bull, of the Marine 

Biolog. Laboratory Woods HoU, VII, 1904, pp. 
300—309. 

931. — Cause of feud between Ants of the same species 

living in different comrauties. Ibid., V, 1903, p. 
327. 

932. Forel, A. Ameisen aus Java (gesamm. von Prof. K. Kraepelin. 

1904), MUtheilung. aus dem Naturhistor. Mnseum. 
Hamburg, XXH, 1905 (p. 1—26). 



— 5 — 

933. Forel, A. Dimorphisme du mal chez les Fourmis et quelques 

autres notices myrmScologiques. Ibid., T. XLVIII, 
1904, p.p. 421—425. 

934. — Miscellanea inyrmScologiques II (1905). Ibid., 

T. XLTX, 1905, pp. 155—185. 

935. — A revision of the species of the Formicidae (Ants) 

of New Zealand. From Transactions of the New 

Zealand Institute, Vol. XXXVII, 1904, p.p. 

353—355. 
'936. — Fourmis d'Asie mineure et de la Dobrudscha. Ann. 

Soc. Entomolog. de Belgique, T. L. 1906, p. 

187—190. 
'937. — Fourmis neotropiques nouvelles ou peu connues. 

Ibid., p. 225—249. 

938. — Moeurs des Fourmis parasites des genres Wheeleria 

et Bothriomyrmex. Revue Suisse de Zoologie Ann. 
de la Soc. Zool. Suisse, T. 14, Fasc. 1, 1906. 
(Extr. T. 13, 1905), p. 51—69. 

939. — Les Fourmis de 1' Himalaya. Bull, de la Soc. Vau- 

doise d. Sc. nat. V. XLII (5-e Sen), ^ 155, 
1906, p. 79—94, 

940. Huber, I. Ueber die Koloniengriindung bei Atta sexdens. Bio- 

log. Centlalbl, Bd. XXV, 1905, pp. 606—619, 
625—635. 

941. Janet, Ch. Anatomic de la t&te du Lasius niger reine. Limo- 

ges, 1905, p, 1—40. 

942. KapaBaetBi, Bji. ifonoJiHeme Kt npeABapHTCjitHOMy OTHCTy o 

nois^lK'fe Ha ocxpoB^ Hsy. 3an. KiescK. 05m. 

ECT., 1901 (oTA- OTT., CTp. I — 4^), CTp. 4I— 42. 

943. — MypasbH h Hxt 5KH3H1>. B-icTH. h BHfiaioTeKa 

CaMOoSpasoBaaiH, 1905 r. JVfi 28, 29 h 30. 

944. — .HaoibH-hflmia HaSjno^iemH Ha.n-b BHAa'MH pOAa 

Antennophorus. Ott. H3x XX t. 3an. KiescK. 
OSux. EcT., 1906, crp. I — 22 (209 — 230). 

945. Karawaiew, W. Versuche uber die internationalen Beziehungen 

einiger Antennophorus-Arten nebst einigen syste- 
matischen Bemerkungen. Zeitschr. fur wissenschafti, 
Insektenbiologie, Bd. I (1 Folge Bd. XAllg. Zeit- 
schr. fiir Biologic), 1905, Helt 12, p. 485—493. 



— 6 



946. Karawnew, W. Systematisch-Biologisches iiber drei Ameisen nus 

Buitenzorg. Ibid. Bd. II (1. Folge Bd. XI), 1906, 

Heft 12, p. 369—376. 

947. — A'ersuch an Ameisen in bezug auf das Obertragen 

der Larven in die Dunkelheit. Ibid. Bd, I (1. Fol- 
ge Bd. X) 1905, Heft 5, p. 215—224; Heft 6, 
p. 257—267. 

94S. Ruzsky, M. Uber Tetramorium striativentre Mayr und Tetr. 
schneideri Emery. Zoolog. Anzeiger, Bd. XXtX, 
A" 16, 1905. 

949. Santschi, F. A propos des moeurs parasitiques temporaires des 

Fourmis du genre Bothriomyrmex. Annales de la 
Soc. entomol. France, T. LXXV, 1906. p. 
363—392. 

950. Strand, luiibr. Xyc bidrag tit Norges hymenopteren- og dipter- 

fauna. Nyt Mag. f. Naturvidensk. B. 44, H. 2. 
Kristiania, 1906 (pp. 95—104). 

951. Wasmann, li. Die phylogcnetische Umbildung ostindisclier 

Ameisengastc in Termitengaste. Mittheil. d. schweiz. 
entom. Gesellsch. Bd. XI, Heft 2, 1905. pp. 
66—70. 

952. — Beobachtungen iiber Polyrhachis dives auf Java, 

die ihre Larven zum Spmnen der Nester benutzt. 
Notes from the Leyden Museum, vol. XXV, 1005, 
p.p. 133—140. 

653, — \'ersuche mit cincm brasilianischen Ameisennest 

in Holland. (150 ikitrag zur Kenntniss der Myr- 
mekophilen). Mit TaF. 8. Tijdschrift voor Entomo- 
logie, Deel XLVIII. 1905, p.p. 1—5. 

954. — Zur Myrmccoph !g:c des Gruenspechts. Ibid., p.p. 

6—12. 

955. — Zur Lcbensweise einigcr in — und auslandischen Amei- 

sengastc (14R Beitrag z. Kenntn. d. Myrmecoph. 
u. Termitoph.) Zeitschr. fur wissenschaftl. Insek- 
tenbiologie, Bd. I (1. Folge Bd. X) 1905, Heft 8, 
p.p. 329—336; Heft 9. p.p. 384—390. 



7 — 



956, Wasmann, E. Die phylogenetische Umbildung ostindischer Amei- 
sengaste in Termitengaste (145 Beitrag zur Kenntn. 
d. Myrraecoph. u. Termitoph.). Comptes rendus du 
6-me Congrfes intern, de Zoologie, Session de 
Berne 1904, pp. 436—447. Mit 1 Taf. 

057. — Ursprung und Entwickelung der Sklaverei bei den 

Ameisen (146 Beitrag zur Kenntn. d. Myrmekoph.), 
Biolog. Centralbl. Bd. XXV, Nr. 4—9, 1905. 

958. — Nochmals zur Frage iiber die temporar gemisch- 

ten Kolonien und den Ursprung der Sklaverei 
bei den Ameisen. Biolog. Centralbl., Bd. XXV, 
Nr. 19, 1905. 

959. Wheeler, W. M. The Polymorphism of Ants, with an Ac- 

count of Some Singular Abnormalities Due to Pa- 
rasitism. Bull, ot the Americ. Museum ot Nat. 
History, Vol. XXHI, art. 1, p.p. 1—93, 1907. 
New- York. 

960. — Extraordinary Femals in Three Species of Formica, 

with Remarks on Mutation in the Formicidae. Bul- 
let, of the American Museum of Nat. Hist., XIX, 
1903, p.p. 639—651. 

961. — A new Type of social Parasitism among Ants. 

Ibid., XX, 1904, p.p. 347—375. 

962. — An Interpretation of Slavenmaking Instikcts in 

Ants. Ibid., XXI, Art. 1, 1905, p.p. 1 — 16. 

963. — Some remarks on Temporary Social Parasitism 

and the Phylogeny of Slavery .imong Ants. Bio- 
log. Centralbl., Bd. XXV, 1905, p.p. 937—644. 

964. Olapoi., JlnBHXh. Hac-bKOMua. IlepcB. Cb aiirjilacK., ci. 06- 

pa6oTKOH H AonojiHeHiHMH H. H. KyaneiioBa. 
BHSoiioreKa eCTecTBosHaHiH noai. pe.a,. BpoyHOBa 
H 4>ayceKa, hsj.- BpoKray3Ti-E4)poHT.. Bun. i — 3 
(4-fl nenaTaeroi). CIIB., 1502— 1907. 

- — ^ae cD ' 



Odmii odsopx MspMeKOJiorH^ecKoS $ayHLi PocciH. 

1. Ko.miHecTBeHHwii eocTRB'b MiipMeKo.iorH'iecKofi cjpayHbi Poc- 

ciii. "STiic.io po;;oBt., Bn;;oB'B, pacia ii paSHOBHflHOCTeS. Cpas- 

neHie JiiipMeKO(J)ayHi.i Pocciii ci, eBponeiiCKOii, c'liBepo-aMepH- 

KaiicKoii II /ipyriiHH coc'Ijhhhhh. 

^HCJio BHAOB'i> a paci MypaBteB's, ;io chxi> nopi Ha^^ee- 
Huxb Bi npe^iMxi PocciKcKoS HMnepia, ;i;ocTHraeT^ 160; BMi- 
ci't-sie ctj paaHoaH^iHocTaMH cociaBt ea MHpMeEOJiorHiecKo2 
(j[)ayHH onpefli-iaeTCfl Bcero 254 (J)opMaMH ^). Hst yKasaHHaro 
iHCia Ha jiojiK) Camponotinae npaxoaHTca 108, Dolichoderinae 
— 7, Myrmicinae — 136 h Ponerinae — 3. 

rio cHCTeMaTHiecKQMi. KaieropiaMx 9th $opMH pacnpe^i- 
jiaiOTca xaKHMT) ofipasoM^: 

I. Camponotinae: 

Camponotus .... 35 (|)opMx (18 bhh. h paci^ 17 pasHOB.) 

Colobopsis (subg.) . 1 „ (1 bhji;i) 

Prenolepis ..... 2 „ (1 bhji;i h 1 pasHOB.) 



') Cm. M. PyacKifl, MypastH PocciH, ^. I. Tp. Kas. OCm- Ect., 
T. XXXVIII, BHH. 4—6, 1903 r. Bi btoS pafioii onncaHo Bcero 25S ^^pw^. 
HO BTi jiaHHOMX cjiy^at 4 HCEjiioqaBTCH KaKi He npHHaaJieffiamia ki $ayHt 
PocciH. Bt. ^HCJit yKaaaHHHX'i 160 BH,ioiii h paci 12 npesciaBJieHH bx HaraeS 
4)ayHt lOJBKO pasHOBHflHociaMH. OAHa pasHOBHSHocTB BUOBB onHCHBaeiea bx 
AaHHofl pafioTi. 



9 — 



Lasius 22 

Formica 25 

Proformica .... 3 
Myrinecocystus . . .12 

Polyergus 1 

Acantholepis ... 4 
Plagiolepis .... 2 



(14 BVijioBi, paci, 8 pasH.) 
(13 BH^toBx H pacB, 12 pasH.) 

(2 BHW H 1 paSHOB.). 

(5 BBS. H pacB, 7 paSHOB.) 

(1 mjL'h) 

(1 BBJ['b H 3 paSHOB.) 
(1 BH^t H 1 paSHOB.). 



II. Dollehoderinae: 

Dolichoderus . . . 2 „ 

Tapinoma 3 „ 

Liometopum. . . . 1 „ 

Bothriomyrmex ... 1 „ 

III. Myrmicinae: 



Cremastogaster . 


. . 13 


» 


Solenopsis . . . 


. , 5 


n 


Tetramorium . , 


. . 12 


» 


Strongylognathus 


. . . 3 


» 


Myrmecina . . 




» 


Formicoxenus . . 




» 


Anergates . . . 




n 


Tomognathus . 




n 


Myrmoxenus . . 




n 


Leptothorax . , 


. . 25 


n 


Temnothorax (subg.). 2 


» 


Mychothorax (sub 


g-)- 8 


n 


Cardiocondyla . 


. 5 


r> 


Monomorium . 


. 5 


J) 


Pheidole .... 


. . 4 


1) 


Myrmica . . . 


. 26 


n 


Stenamma . , . 


. 3 


» 


Ischnomyrmex . 


. . 1 


» 


Aphaenogaster . 


. . 7 


n 


Messor (subg.) . . 


. 13 


n 



(1 BHAT, Hi paca) 
(2 BHja H 1 paca) 

(1 BHI%) 
(1 BHAl). 



(6 bh;i;. h pacB, 7 pasH.) 
(3 BHj. H pacH, 2 pasH.) 
(5 B0;i;. H paci, 7 pasH.) 
(2 BH^a, 1 pasHOB.) 
(1 bh;i;%) 

(1 BHa%) 

(1 bh;i'b) 

(1 BHJtl) 

(1 eh;i;i) 

(18 Bn;i. H pacx, 7 pasn.) 

(2 BH^ta) 

(3 BH^naHpaCH, 5pa3H0B.) 

(3 BH;^a H 2 pasHOB.) 

(5 B0j!i;OBl) 

(3 BHja pacH, 1 pasHOB.) 
(15 BHA. HpacT., 11 pasH.) 
(1 bh;i;i 1 paca, 1 pasH.) 

(1 B0Sl) 

(3 BH;^a H 4 pasHOB.) 

(6 BHA. apacB, 7 pasaoB,). 



— 10 — 

IV. Ponerinae: 

Ponera 3 „ (2 BHja h 1 pasHOB.). 

Bcero 35 pojiOB'B n no^npoAOB^, bi KoaHnecTBt 254 <J)opMi. 

(148 BHitOBT. H paCl H 106 paSHOBHaHOCTefl). XOTfl Ha 9TH 1H- 

cja H HejiBsa cmotp'Sti, KaKi. Ha OEOHqaxejn-Hafl m. bhjiv Epafi- 
Hefl HejioCTaTOiHocTH Hacji.iOBaHiS mhophxi M'icrHOCrea Poccia, 
leM^ yase 6ujio roBopeao bt, nepBoS qacxn pa6oTH (1. c. crp. 
11), t'Smx He Meete BceTaKH mokho c^HTaxb. mto HaocHOBaHiii 
Hiiiioniuxcfl jtaBHuxi o6iii,ifi cocraB^ h xapaKtepi JinpMeKO.io- 
ra^ecKoS ^ayHu Wh npexfejiaxi. Poccia buhchh-icji 5oxfee n.iH 

MCH'fee y/tOBJtCTBOpHTejbHO. 

CaMUMH MHoroiiHMeHHHMH, KaKX Teiiept oKasuBaerca. no 
'jticjiy (|)opMT) pojaMH MBJaiOTCH Camponotus, Myrmica, For- 
mica, Leptothorax h Lasius; satiMi. cjiijyiox'i. Cremastogaster, 
Messor, Myrmecocystus h Tetramorium; ocTajitHHe, sa hc.iio- 
'jeHieMi Mychothorax vs. Aphaenogaster, npe.iCTai'jiOHU KpSne 

HeSHaqUTOJIBHUMl KO-lBHeCTBOltb {J)opin.. 

CpaBHHBaa aainy iiBpMeKOJiorH'iecyio (|)ayHy bi. oTnoineHia 
KO-iHiecTKa H cocTaBa po;iOBi. ex sanajiHoK EBponoi n CiBepHoB 
AMepiiKofi, KaKX M{!CTHOCTaMH do.rbe 6jih3Khmh kx Poccia no 
({)n3HKO-reorpa(J)HHqecKHMx yciOBijiMX, a TaK?Ke ex co("£,t;hhmh 
o6.?iacraMH loavHofl Asia, mm bh^hmx, qxo 9Ta (Jtayea bo 1-xx) 
OT.iaqaeTca BooouT,e oxx BunieHa3BanHuxx cxpanx 6i;;iHOCXbio no 
KOJinnecxBy pojoBX, h ;iojjRHa Ou-vh bx bxomx oxaoineHiii no- 
cxanJieea aa nocji'6;i;Hee iiicxo, bo 2-xx) aaaSo.rte xicaoe otho- 
meaie oaa HMiexx nperKjte Bcero kx (Jjayai EBponw, a saxiMx 
yate KxCiBepaoi AmepaKb. Bjassaa, pojicxBOHHafl csasb HameS 
MBpMeKO(|)ayHu ex eBponeScKoa BHxeoeTX y^Ke H3x xoro, hto 
nocjrls,!i,Bfla, x. e. ({)ayHa EBponti (13, 222, 511), coAepKHTX bx 
^6^, Bci xtee pojiH, 1X0 H Poccia, sa acKJiioyeHieMX xojibko 
AByxx — Jschnomyrmex, CBOficTBeaaaro Boofime 5o.rfce tojkhhmx 
qacxsMx ciaparo CB'fexa, a Myrmoxenus, noKa HaftfleaHaro bx 
Asia, — o6a, HMtiomie .larax no 1 npeiiCTaBBTe.MO bx ^ayat Poc- 
cia; jtaaie QojBmaHCTBO po;iOBX, o6ai,Bxx oQianx cxpaaaMx, 
BM'Iiioxx npnSjiasHTejibBo o^taaaKOBHS hjih aecbMa cxo/ibhS sa- 



— 11 — 

WBOfi cocTaBt. Ho $ayHa EBponu n-h roate speMa SHaqHTejitHO 
6oraie Hamefl, xaaf. KaKi b% hcA mh Haxo;^HM'fc 10 pojOBt, 
HMeano Brachymyrmex, Anochetus, Sysphingta, Stigmatomma, 
Dorylus, Phacota, Leptanilla, Goniomma, Strumifjenys h Epi- 
tritus, coBepmeHHO noKa HeasBicTHBixx bx PocIh, — oScTOflre^ii.- 
CTBO BHOiHi yjOBjieTBopHxeJibHo o6iacHfliomeeca 6ojiie 6jiaronpi- 
axHUMH H pa3Hoo6pa3HHMH $H3aEO-reorpa(][)H?ecKaMH ycJioBisMB 
T'bx'i. pafloHOBi Enponu, oaBeBiMi. oijpasoM^ ocxpoBOBi h no- 
Oepeacifi cpe;i:a3eMHaro Mopa, Ha hojik) Koxopax-B npuxowxca 
BumeHasBaHHHe pojiH. CypoBEia ae KsHMaxi h cKy;iHua, oji.no- 
oopasHua JKHsaeHHHa yciOBia, na6JiioAa,euua aa rpoMa;tBHX'& 
oiHpoxHHXX) upoTaateaiaxi Poccia, bt, ocofieaHOCXH ea cisepHofi 
nojiOBHHU, oxHioib He Moryxi cnocoScxBOBaxb Goraxcxay h po- 
CKomaoMy pasBHTiio xaKoi! $ayHH KaKi MapMeKO^orHiecEaa, 
jlocxHraiomafl HaHfio-utraaro pacn;B'lixa b^ xponaiecKHX'B crpa- 
iiaxx H nocxeneHHO yduBaromaa oxx aKBaxopa ki nojirocaiii,; 
KaK^ axo eme lOKasaax. M a 2i p x.. 

C^ CtB. AMepHKofi (159, 160) aama 4>ayHa xaKate hm'S- 
erx MHoro oSmaro, SyAy^a npaxoMi CBflaaaa ci ae.& a reaexa- 
necKH, HO oxjiHiaeiCfl ox'b aea BcexaKH ropasjio 6ojihme, liwh 
oxx> CBponeScKofi. TaKx. bx (|)ayHb Cis. AuepaKH HM'feexca 22 
poiia lyac^HX^ Poccia, ho npa axoMi a oxcyicxByiox^ 9 po- 
jlOBX. (a noflpoAOBx.), apaaa^Jieatamax^ nocit^taeM. SaxiMb h 
BBjiOBoS cocxaBX) pojiiOBHX'b rpynax. yase naofi. BupoqeM^ 9to 
pasjiaiie ao HSB-fecxaofi cxeneHH coaaiBBaexca, 6.iaro;!;apa aa- 
xoavAeaiio bx. ofiiaxx (|)ayHaxi poAOBt a BB;^oBx. OaasKax^ Meat- 
Ay coooa, HO yca'iBUiHXi yjKe yKJioaaxbca apyrx oix> apyra 
(BcaiACTBie AaBHOcxH pasieAHneaia a pasjiaqia bx. xapaKxep'6 
M'icxooSaxaHia), CAtJiaBaiaxca euKapuuMU. TaKBMa, nanpaM., aa- 
M'6Haioui,HMH rpynnaMH aB-naioxca: Epoecus a Anergates, subg. 
Dichothorax a Temnothorax; xose oxqacxa mojkho CKaaaxb n 
oxHOCHxeibHO Xenomyrmex, KOxopuJS b-b H'fcKoxopoMx. poA'£ mo- 
aterx. dbixb npoxaBynocTaBJieax. Cardiocondyla. 

OpacyxcxBie 6oabmaro KOjiaiecxsa poAOBx> bx. ^'^'Y^'fe 
CiB. AMepaKB ofiiacaaexca rjiaBHHMi oSpaaoM'E ea 6oA-ie 
BuvoAuawh reorpa^BHecKHMx nojioaieHieM'b , HMeaHO xiaix. 



— 12 — 

'!T0 OHa BuraHyTa ct, C ht, K), ^ocTHraa CBoe8 watnot 

OKoaeiHOCTbio TpoaHKOBi, Tor^a KaKi oCraapHaa leppHTopia 

PocciH pacxaayTa hi mapoTHOMi HanpaBjeHiH, HMia noixH 

Ha Bcewh cBoeMi nporaaceHia loatHjfi rpaHHqefi .iiHiiib 40" 

c. m.; BCJilJACTBie aroro bt. cocxaB'fi MHpMeKO(|)ayHH CSb. 

AsiepBKH Hiiierca HSBicTHoe KOJiH^eCTBo cneii,iaabHO ipo- 

nu^ecKBXi. , K)XBO- a n,eHTpaabHo - aMepHKaHCKHx^ po^OBi 

{Eciton, Fseudomyrma, Pachycondyla, Pogonomyrmex, Do- 

rymyrmex, Atta, Forelius, Cryptocerus, Proceratium), bo- 

Topue Bci CBofiCTBeHHu lOHiHHM^ MicTHOcTaMT, HasBaHHaro na- 

xepHKa, 6y!l)•^s sanMCXBOBaHu hmh h3t. xponHKOBi; bi ({)ayHt- 

ate Poccin losHHe pojiH uohxh oxcyxcxByioTx. Ho xoH-ae no- 

BHjiHMOMy npHiHei bi C4b. AiiepHEi mh BCxpiqaeM^ h xaKie 

pojiH, Koxopue CBoficTBeHHu xaKate h Esponi, ho Jianit. loatnofi 

ea uo.ioc§, ocxpoBawi Cpe^iHseMHaro Mopa h cfeBepHofi A(i)pHK'fe, 

a HMCHHO: Brachymyrmex, Stigmatomma, Sysphingta h Stru- 

migenys; m. Poccin ace 9Thxi po^OBi. H'ixi, ;^a h e;i,Ba-JiH Bci 

OHH HaH^yxcfl. Bee 9Xo rosopHri, 3a xo, ixo npa cpaBHeHin 

;iByxT. MHpMeKO(})ayHi, pyccKOH h ciBepoaMepHKaHCKofi, mu 

;i0.1HtHU HCKJIOMHXb nOHTH BCM lOKHyiO XpeXb CiB. AMCpHKH H 

npHHHMaxB BO BDHMaaie tojbko ea cpe;iHiOK) h ciBepHyio ^acxn, 
HMi;H)U];ifl npHfiMSHxe.ibHO o;i;HHaKOBua ch Pocciefi KJHMaxaqe- 
CKia H 6io;iorHiecKifl ycJiOBia. Ilpa xaKofl nocxaHOBKi BOnpoca 
H pesyjbxax^ cpaBaeeia Cy^exx hhoS; xor^a a aHaaoria Meatjiy 
flBVMa pascMaxpHBaeMUMH ({)ayHaMH oKaasexca dcite nojiHoa, hi. 
ocoSeHHocxH ecjiH MH npHMeMx BO BHHMaaie xi 3aM4iii,aK)inie 
TponaiecKie poAu, KoxopHxi roBopajiH Buine. Bb caMOM% 
a'fe.ii, HCKJioiHBb H3T, cocxaBa ciBepoaMepHEaHCKofi (|»ayHbi bu- 
meynoMaayxHe poAH h)!Kho- h n,eHxpajibHoaMepHKaHCKie (Bcero 
9 pojiOBi), saxiMi K&dk po;ia xoxa h raHpoKopacnpocxpaHeaHux^, 
HO CBOficxBeHHHxi. upeaMymecxBeHHo xponaiecKOMy noacy, Ka- 
KOBu Leptogenys a Odontomachus, HaKoaei^i 3 BHKapHuxx 
poAa H 4 o6mHxx> CiBepaofi AMepaKi a loaiHoa EBponi, mh 
yBBAHM^, qxo 4>ayHa ciBepHoS a cpe;i;Hefl Hacxefi CiB. Amcpbeb 
OKaasexca xaEoa me 6fejiHoa KaBx. a Poccia a noixa cxoib-ace 
6.iH3Koa Kx. HeS KaKi H eBponcMcKaa; Bce pasaaiie ax^ Sy^eTi 



— 13 — 

saKJiioiaTbca tojibko bi 3 po^jaxi, npHcymaxi Cis. AuepHKife 
(Trachymyrmex, Discothyrea h subg. Acanthomyops), h 9, 
HJiH 6 (ecjia HCKJiiOHHTb 3 BHBapHHXt pojta) eS He cBOfiCTBea- 
Huxx, HO BCTp'iqaromaxca b^ PoccIh, t. e. zjij^Ch oxHomeHie 
AMepHKH wh Poccia, no cpaBHCHiio ct EBponoS Sy^eTi o6- 

paXHUVB. 

CooTHoraeHie HameS (Jtayau ei rojEHte jresamRMH o6JiacTflMH 
AaiH, ci IlepcHACKoB, OcTi-HHSCKOfi h KHTafiCKa-MaHisypcKOfi, 
ceHiac^ HeBosMoacHO ycxaHOBHTt hi tohhocth no He^ocxaxKy h3- 
CJl'fe;^OBaHifi. OTHOCHTcibHO OcTi-HHAia MBpMeKa(|)ayHa Koxopoa 
cpaBHHTeJibHO Jiyqme HSCiijiOBaHa (58, 300, 346, 349, 939), uoss.- 
HO csasaxb, ixo xaMi HMiexca 25 pojtOBi, o6mHxi> ci Pocciefi, 
SoJibuiaa nacxb kohx^ npHHa;i;je;KHx^ r.mBHUMi o6pa30Mi ci- 
aepHUMi paSoBaMi HH^ocxaHa (FaMajiaH, KauiMHpi), h 55 xa- 
Kaxi., KOTopux'b Hixi. Bt Poccia, npaqeju'b 9xh nowiAHie cboS- 
cxBeanH npeHMya],ecTBeHHo onaxb xaKH iojkhhm'b xponHHecKHM'B 
lacTflMX HHjtocxaHa a npHJiesKaa^aM-b ki Heiay ocxpoBaMx.. Ta- 
KHMT. ofipasoMi, Haadojiie xiceoe cooxHoraenie HMiexi aania 
MHpMeKOJioraHecKaa (fjayaa xo^bKO ci c^BepHHMa MicxHOCxaMH 
H[HJ^iB, HeiiocpejicxBeHHo npHJieaian^BMH si ea loaiHOfi rpaeai^i, 
ox-b npoiHX'b ate doaie loacHtix'B HH;jiflcKHXi o^Jiacxefl, hmJio- 
maxt coBC'feMx Apyria ycjiOBia, oxjiaqaexca p-fcsKO. 

HaKoaei^'B, HecowatHHO, cpoicxBO $ayHH IIpHMopcBofl o6- 
jiacxH B^ CaSapa ex ManqsKypiefi so-jskho 6HXb oieHb xiCHHMX, 
KaK^ axo yace aacxByexb hb^ asBtcxHEixt HaM'b 6oxaHHKO-reor- 
pa(f)aiecKBXi ;iaHHHxi, ho no oxcyxexBiio aacji'feAOBaHifl Eonpocb 
9T0TI ocxaexCH coBepraeHHo ne BbracHeHHtiMi. 

^xo ace Kacaexca CBasa c^ nycxHHaMH BUCOKaro n;eHx- 
pajibHO-asiaxcKaro naropba, x. e. rjiaBHUMt odpaaoMx ci Moh- 
rojiiea H TafiexoMi, xo xaKOBaa coBepnieHHO OHeBHa;Ha hbx. npa- 
cyxcxBia bi pyccKoft MapMeKoaoraiecKofi ^ayai xapaKxepHtixx. 
npejcxaBHxeJiefi axoro Haropta, KaKOBH, aanpHM., Myrmica 
smythiesi P'or., Messor lobuliferus Em. h HtB. jip., ho OHa npo- 
aBJinexca xojibKO Ha canEaxx. kkhhxi h ioro-BocxoiHHX% OKpaa- 
nax^ Ch6bph h PyccKaro TypsecxaHa, He npocxapaacb laaie 
iOKH0-CH(5apcKHX'b TopHHXx. H.'hnefi, oxjt'fejifliomBX'B ox% CadapH 



— 14 — 

MoHrojiiK) Bt Ka-jecTBi KpyuHuxt nperpaji;^, sa KoiopuMH ysce 
.leataTi of5aacTH ci ;ip\THMH <5iorpa(j)HqecKHMH vcjioBJaMH. Oco- 
6eHH0 xopomo o()HapyatiiBaeTca csasi. c^ ueeipajibHO asiaTCKHMT. 
Haropheiix bi MnpMeKo^ayn'h IlasiHpa a CeMHpi»itfl, KaKi 9T0 
oujio yate paHbine JtOKasano, b'i. ocoSeHHOciH OTHOCHTejLHO 
iJXTio(j[)ayHH, npotj). A. M. H h k o ji b-c k m i ^). HaKonert^. 
cymeCTByexx TaK^eJ liSB'bcTnaa, xoia h 6oJite OTjia.ieonaa 
CBasB immefl MHpMeKo.iorH'?ecKofi ({)ayHU, oSaapyatHBaeMaa Hsien- 
no BT. 3aKacni8cKofi od/.acTH h naCTBio bi 3aKaBKa3LH, ci> 
a(j[)pHKaHCKOfl H apasiacKoa qepesx MesonoxaMiio n Depciio, ^ito 
^o;^TBepa^;^aeTCfl a na xapaKTept jtpyrHX^ (JiayH'i, nasBaHHuxi, 

lliCTHOCTefl. 

2. Paa.Tli.ieiiie .Mypaui.eBii Pocciii no oo.iacTJiM'ij paciipo- 

CTpaHeiiiii. 

PasciiaipHBaeMwa ex tohkh apiflia reorpa(})HiecEaro pacnpo- 
cipaneHia MvpaBtH Poccia sioryri fluxt pasA^-ienH na oi- 
jiyroinia rpynnu: 

a) (f)opMH naaeapHmuHecKiH (acsJioHHTejibHO npHHaA-ieffia- 
mia na.ieapKTHiecKofi ofijacTH); 

6) (|)opMbi uupKyM6opeaAt,HbiH mu toAapicmuuecKiH (cboS- 
CTBeBHua KaKi MaxepHKy eBponefiCKO-aaiaTCEOMy, xaKi h C'jfe- 
lepHoS AMepHK*); 

b) — KOCMOnOAumbi, HM'firomia BecbMa o6raHpHuS KpyrB 
reorpa({)0qecKaro pacnpocTpaHCHia; 

r) (|)opMEi naAeoteiiCKin, r. e. ofiHTaiomia ea DpocxpaHCiBfe 
6oJi.nie3 qacxH Ciaparo CB-Sxa. 

Cpe;!tH ape,icxaBHTe.nefl nepBoS rpynnu mh MoateMi pasiiE- 
laxb cjEiAyiomia Kaxeropia: 1) MypasbeBi no npCHMymecxBy 



'; A. M. n H KO jiBc Kifl, ifayHt nosBOHOiHHX's khbotuhxi jina 
Ba.ixaraeKofl komobhhh, 18S7. Ota. ott. hsi Tpyj. C.-IIeTepOyprCK. 06in. 
.EcieeiBOHCnHTaTejiei}. 



— 15 — 

eeponeitcKUxv, 2) no npeaMymecTBy cu6upcKUXi; 3) — npHHa^ae- 
atamaxi CpeduaeMuoMopcKOti nodoSmcmu, KOTOpae y nacB pacnpo- 
CTpaneHH m, KpHMy, na KasRas* h wh CpeAHeaaiaTCKHxi BJia- 
;i;iHiaxx; A:)—mupoKopacnpocmpaHeHHuoc^ BOo6m;e hi HajieapK- 
THiecEoS o6.iiacTH, CBoficTBeHHuxi KaRi Esponi, xasx h Asia; 
H 5) — i^eHmpaAmo-aaiamcKUXi. npaHasJieaEamaxi BHCOKOMy 
rjCHtpajisHo-aBiaTCKOMy naropbio. 



a) npepiCTaBHTejiH najieapKTHHecKoft oOjiacTH 

1. I'Isi ^pe;^CTaBHTeJIefi IIa.ieapKTHKa m> ^opMaMx no npe- 
HMyii;ecTBy eeponeiicKUMi, t. e. rjiaBHHMx oSpasoMi npaHajiiJie- 
jKamnMx ciBepaofi h cpe;ieeM EBponi a xapaKTepasyiomaMX 3aua;i;- 
HYK) MacTB najieapKTHqecKofi o6aacTB, OTHocarca: 



**Prenolepis imparls v. ni- 
tens 
'*Camp. marginatus kamensis 
Camp, manginatus s. str. 
*Camp. herculeanus v. shi- 
tkovi 
**Lasius bicornis 
**L. emarginatus 
? L. brunneus v. pallidas 
Formica rufa v. meridio- 

nalis 
Form, exsecta v. rubens 
*B'orm. fusca v. gagatoides 
**Polyergus rufescens 
**Dolichoderus quadripun- 

ctatus 
**Liometop. microcephalum 
**Solenopsis fugax 



**Myrmecina graminicola 
Tomognathus sublaevis 
Leptoth. tuberum v. nig- 
riceps 
**L. corticalis 
L. unifasciatus 
*L, melnikovi 
*L, kirillovi 
''L. volgensis 

*Tetramor. caespitum v. 
ferox 
**Myrmica rubida 
*M. scabrinodis bessarabica 
**Stenamma westwoodi 
♦Messor tataricus 
*Messor structor v. clivo 
rum 
Ponera coarctata 



**Strongylogn. testaceus 

Bcero 30 $opMi, hto cocTaBBTi oe. ll,?"/,, ^m Bcefi 
napMCKOJiorBqecKofl $ayHH Poceia. 



16 



$OpMH, OTMiHeHHHa SBisAO^KOfl, Hafi^eHH nOKa TOJIbKO BT. 

EBpon. PoccJH n sioaceTi 6aTh HiKOTopHa OKaffiyrca xapaaiep- 
HHMH wa Hca. Mai ;cyMaeTca, hto TaKOBHMH mosiho ciBTaiB 
H renepb Leptoth. volgensis, L. melnikovi, Camp, marginatus 
hamensis, L. kirillovi, Form, rufa var, meridionalis, Messor 
structor var. cUvorum, xaKi KaKx ohh hc Hafi;i;eeH he bt. o,iHOfi 
H3i Ttxi MicTHOCTefl cpejiHeS EBpona, KOTopaa moskho cqn- 
TaTb cpaBHHTe.iBHo xopomo HSCjiiOBaeHHMH, KaKi-TO Bi. Abct- 
pin H BeHrpiH (Mafip-B 507, 508, 509), lIlBefiu,apiH (# o- 
peJB 257), BejiHKoSpHTaHiH (Cmhti 706,707; CaaiepcT. 
670), lepMaaiB (UlHJiJiFHrx 689; ^opcTepi. 252, 253), 
Jl,aHiH (MefiHepri 564), IIlBeniH ( A x Ji e p u x 2; Cxo-ntne 
636), $paHi];in (AaiEpa 13 n BprofiaH^ 74). Bosmohiho 
TaKxe, qxo H'SKOiopHa naHjiyTca h b^ Ch6hph, aaup. C. her- 
ciil. var. shitkovi, Form, fusca var. qagatoides, Lept. kirillovi. 
3Iyrm. rubida; ipyrie bi. CBoeMx. pacupocTpaHeaiH ee orpaea- 
qiiBaioTCfl H noceflqaci upe^viiJiaMH EsponH, a 3axojifln> bi 3a- 
naxHHH H.TH lorosanajiHHa lacrn Asia (nanp. Leptoth. unifas- 
ciatus) HiiH BB CpejiHseMHOMopcKyK) noioS.iacTb {Solen. fur/ax, 
JDolich. 4—punctatus, Pen. coarctata, Liomet. microcepha- 
Jum). B6.iibiiiyK)-JKe lacTb hst. npHBeieHHHXi. bx raSjian.'h (|)opM^ 
Hy;KHO ciHTaTb xapaKTepHHMH AJia SaiiaAHOi Eeponu; OH'^onii- 

MCHH JIByMa SBiSilOHKaMH (**). 

2. #opMH no npeaMyra;ecTBy cn6upcKiH (t. e. xapaKTepti- 
syiomia BOCxoiHua Hacxw Ila.ieapEXffHecKofi oSjacTH): 

Caraponotus saxatilis f F. sanguinea v. mollessonae 

C. herculeanus v. sachali- f Dolichoderus sibiricus 
neusis Myrraoxenus gordjajrini 

t C. aterrimus Leptothorax nassonovi 

t C. quadrinotatus Lept. stipaceus 

Formica uralensis Lept. serviculus 

F. truncicola v. yessensis f Mychothorax hirticornis v. 
F. transcaucasica sibiricus 

F. rufibarbis v. glauca Myrmica kasczenkoi 



— 17 



t M. commarginata 

M scabrinodis v. lacustris 



M. scabrin. v. salina 
M. angulinodis 



l^CtX'I. 20 (I)!)pM-Ij H.HH OK. 7,877,1 Bchxi pyccKBX^ My- 
paBi.oBT.. ^acJlo 3T0 6e3% coMHtHia cihuibomi Ma.iio h is% dyjiy- 
^^eM^ A!)'i'Kno SHaqHiejbHO vBejaqHThca. HfeKOTopua b31 nepe- 
^iHC;ieHHuxb ({)opMi., 6y;^y'^a mnposo pacapocrpaaenu bt. Ch- 
6npn, KaK'b Camp, saicatilis, Form, uralensis, L'ipt. stipiceus, 
L. nassonovi, nocieneano JtearafoTca na sanaji'b; oai yate ne- 
peiu-iH Fpa-iii H, ji;o8ja noKa ji.o Bo^ira, saHajiH noirii bck) bo- 
CTOiavK) ^i^Bp. Pocciio, TA'k pacapocrpaaeHU cnopaiaqecKH, a 
Form, uralensis npoHHK^ jiaate w Mockbh, npeAcraBjas sa^cb 
c.iyiaaHuil, coBepmeHHo HsojuposaHSbia, KpaSHiS {{)apnocTi cbo- 
ero pacnpocTpaBenifl ki saaajty. 3HaK0in> (f) oiMfcieau (|)opMH, 
upnHa;iJie3Kaiuia Bocroqaofl CaSapH, Koiopuji BtpoaxHO TaKa?e 
RC'fi naSayTca h bij Maaqscypia. 

3. ^opjiu cpeduseMHOMopcKZH, t. e. CBoScTBeaaHa K)a:aHMTj 
qacTaMx Ila.ieapKTaqecKofl oSjacru: 



*Carap. turkestanicus 

'*C. dichrons v. ferganensis 

^C. dichr. v. flavonitidus 

*C. fedtschenkoi 

*C. xerxes 

*C. turkestanus 
f C. silvaticus 

*C. aethiops s. str. 

C. aeth. V. glaber 

t C. lateralis v. bicolor 

*C. later, v. atricolor 
C. lat. V. merula 

*C. interjectus 
**C. marginatus ruzskii 
C. marg. lameerei 

*Tetramorium schneideri 

*T. caesp. v. reticuliventre 
t T. caesp. v. meridionale 



T. caesp. v, forte 
T. caesp. v. punicum 
t T. semilaeve 

T. seinil. v. schmidti 
*T. inerme 
t Leptothorax exilis 

*L. satunini 
f L. affinis 
t L. nylanderi 
t Colobopsis truncata 
Myrmecocystus albicans 
*M. viaticus setipes 
*M. altisquamis v. jakobsoni 
*M. foreli 

*M. caspius (aenescens) 
*M. pallidas 
Proformica nasuta 
*Pror. aberrans 

2 



— 18 — 



Acantholepis frauenfeldii 
I'lagiolepis pygmaea 
PI. pygm. V. pallescens 
Tapinoma nigerrimum 
Bothriomyrmex meridionalis 
f Creraastogaster scutellaris 
f Cr. scntell. v. schmidti 
Cr. auberti v. sorokini 
f Cr. laestrygon 
Cr. karawaevi 
*Isclinomyrm. rhaphidiiceps 
*Stenainma asiaticum 
t Solenopsis orbula v. latroides 
*Sol. deserticola 
*Myrmica bergi 
*M. stangeana 
*Tetramorium striativeritre 
t Leptothorax nigritus 

*L. semenovi 
t Temnothorax recedens 
t T. rogeri 



f Cardiocondyla elegans 
*C. eleg. V. uljanini 
*C. bogdanovi 
*C. stambulovi 
*C. stamb. v. kosbewnikovi 
*Monomorium salomonis 
*M. barbatiilum 
*M. venustum 
Pheidole pallidula 
t Aphaenogaster subterranea 
t Aph. testaceopilosa 
f Aph. testae, v. semipolita 
t Aph. gibbosa 
Messor structor 
M. barbarus 
*M. caducus 
M. capitatus 
M. aegyptiacus (v. incor- 

ruptus) 
M. striaticeps 
t Ponera ochracea 



9to aobo.ji.ho o5mHpnafl rpynna, ^tocxaraioinaa 77 (|)opMi, 
cocxaBjatomaxL okojio 30,31'' ^ Bcero KOJiaiecTBa HaB^eaHuxB 
BT> Poccia MypaBBCB^. 

OjiHH Msx npejcxaBHTejieK CpeAHsenHOMopcKoa ao;to6jiacTH, 
OTMiqesHwe snaKOMx. (f), xapaKiepiaisyjOTT. aana^iHyio lacxb axofi 
no^od-iacTH h ;i;oxo;i;aTx Ha boctok-b ^o Kpuna h KaBKaaa. Jtpyrie, 
OTiffeqeHHtie 3Bi3;i;oHKo8 (*), npHHas.iejKavi> boctohhoH HacxH 
CpejtHseMHOMopcKoa no;to6.3acTH h pacnpocipaHeHu hi Typne- 
CTaH'6, KHprH3CEofi cxenH, SaKacniMcKoH oSjacxa h no 3aaa;i- 
HOMy no6epe/KbK) KacniftcKaro Mopa; Sojibmyio nacTb asi hhxx 
MoaiHO CHHxaxb xapaKxepHHMH ;i;jia TypancKott npoBHHi^ia; H'i- 
Koxopiie-ffie pacnpocxpaneHH juajiBrae ea, Bcxpiiaacb bi IlepciH, 
ApaBia, Maaoa -* Asia (nanpHir. Myrm. pallidus). SaxiMx, 
HM-lbioxca (|)opMH, npoxo^an^ia nepesi bck) o^jacxb otl IIopTy- 



19 



rajia h AxaaccKHX^ rop^ jno TypKeciaHa BRJiroiHTeJitHO {Pla- 
giolepis pygmaea, Myrmec. albicans, Pheidole pallidula). 

H'feKOTOpHe cpeauaeMHOMopcKie bh;ih pacna-iacb na no^- 
BHiu H pasHOBHjiHOCTH, xapaRTcpHsyiomie pa3JinqHBie paSOHH 
ofijiacfH CpeAHaenaaro iiopa, aB.iflaci. TasBMi oCpasoMi am 
3aaa;i;Hoa h BOCTOiaoa qacreH arofi o^.iacxH saMhHaromHMH ^'OP' 
MaMH. TaKOBti BHJiu: Carapon. maculatus, Myrmecocystus cur- 
sor, Mvrmec. viaticus, Myrm. altisquamis, Messor structor. 

Hsx B(HKia noiHHOpcj^saro sHsa Campon. maculatus ayajHO, 
B^ KaiocTBfe upHM'fepa, yBwaxt aa G. aethiops, soTopaa o6pa- 
soBaji^ Meiupe ^jpMu, xapaRTepnayiomia pa.sHua o(5aacTH, hmgh- 
Ho: 1) cashmiriensis Ha KpaaHeMT> BOCToafe pacnpocTpaeeHia 
3To8 pacu, Bx KainMHpi; 2) ,9?a6er —na KaBKas-fe; 3) concavus — 
Ha KaBRas'fe, B^ KpuMy h aa BajiKaBCKOM^ nojyocTpoBi; 4) angus- 
tatm — Ha sana^'l, eo $paHii,iH. 

Myrmecocystus cursor ;iaa'B 2 ocHOBBHa (JjopwH: saaaflHyio 
M. cursor i. sp. (M. cursor cursor Em.), pacnpocTpaHeaayio 
OTi IIopxyrajiiH jo Aasnx, h BOCToqayfo— caspw.s [M. cursor 
aenescens (Nyl.) Em.], BaaHMaromyio BeHrpiio, lOKHyio Esp. 
PocciK) H cpe;!tHio:o Asiio ji,(i TaSeia. Bt. HtajiiH ot^ nero OTj-fe- 
.nHiacE. BfeTBt M. cursor Ualicus Em. Bi. MajioS Asia, Capia 
H Ilepcia ero saM'^aaeri QjiasKia bbjii Myrm, frigidus (And.) 
Era. 

Myrmecocystus cursor va.^- caspius Ruz. noBceft B'tpoaTHocTH, 
KaKT. 3T0 noKasajiTj 3 m e p h bt. caoeft HeAasHO B!jme.5uieft moho- 
rpacfDiH poAi Myrmecocystus (935), royKJitcTaewh cb Myrm. cursor 
aenescens Nyl. na-b io/Khoh Poccui {Formica aenescens Nylander 
596, CTp. 37,$„J H 5). Ha ocHOBamH ne tojilko MopcfjoMaTHqecKHxi., 
HO rjiaBHUMb oSpasoMT. h reorpacfjHqecKKXb npHSHaKOBT. ero hvkho 
ciHTaTb sa pacy Myrm. cursor (Fonsc); Toraa Myrmec. tancrei 

For. jtlOJI/KeHb IIpeA-taBwlHTb KpiHHtOlO BOCTOHHyiO paSHOBHilHOCTb 

Myrm. cursor aenescens, xapaKTepnyHD a^s. ucHTpajibHo-aaiaTCKaro 
Haropta. 

Myrmecocystus altisquamis pocnaAaexca xaKace Ha ^b* 
paca: 1 ) MaJoaaiaxcKO — nepcH^CKyio inaannYio— altisquamis i. sp. 

2* 



— 20 — 

[M. altisquaniis —altisquainis (E. And.) Em,], jiaioinyFO 3 
ooibe ciBepalJx^ paauoBiUHOCTii — hudiaricus For., jakobsoni 
Ruz. II grac/lens Ruz. ii 2) cpejiiae-aaiaTCKyK), nycTUHHyio— /b- 
relf, jiocTHraroinyio Ha cbnept ;io Capenru (925). 

Myrmecocijstus viaticus oOpaayeii n-fejiua pfl^b (j)opM^. 
Bh Baaa.inoa Eiiponi ataByTf.; M. viaticus i. sp. h hispani- 
cii^\ Bi A.iHvHpi; — (f/e/j/a"; Bt boctoihoS EBponb (BearpiB, Ba.i- 
KaucK. noi.); cfeBepo-Bocro>moii A(|)pHKfe, 3aKaiiKa3b'fe 3aKa- 
ciiiScKOH oS.iacTti — desertorum, a Ha KpaSaeMi BOCTOKb oQjiacTH, 
Bi. ii,eHTpa.ifatioH Asiii 11 ciBepHoS Unjiia—setipes, pasHOBHj- 
nocrb KOToparo turcomanicus apejCTaBiaexT. nepexoji MeJKjty 
fiHMi. H desertorum. 

Messor striictor Ha jioBOJi.no oSiuiipHoM oS-iacTii CBoero 
ooi'Tanisi, Kpoufc THnaiuoQ (f)opMu, iKHuyiueS bo 'i>paniii0, o6pa- 
30Baji> 4 pasHOBiiAHOCTH: a) ttjrrenus, sanajiByio 4)opMy, Hacejiaio- 
mvK) Hcaaniio a Ilrajiiio; 6) muticus — iMaBHUMi) o5pa30MX 
XiipaKTep;i3yioinyio BOCToqavH) EBpony, Majiyio Asiio h KasKaax; 
Bj orientalis, npHHa:i.ie?Kaiii,yio npeaMyir^ecTBenno Typany 
He Hjiymyio nasaiiajib jiaji'lbc Ma.aoH Asia a [oroBOCTOHnoH EBp. 
Poccia, 11 r) cUvorum, CBoBcrBeHnyio ciBepo-BOCTOKy Espon. 
Pocciii ajymyio 3j,'I>ci. na cfeBep^ laBi jtajieKO KaKt HHr^t 
B!. Esponi. 

BojiLuinHCTBO cpejiHseMHOMopcKBXT) (|)opMx jiBJiflioTca xa- 
paivxepnuiia j.ia nycTUB0 a KaMeH0CToS CTen0. 

4. <J>opMiJ eeponeucKO-asiamcKtH (xapaKxepasyiomiaca Becb- 
iia inapoKHMx pacupocxpaHeHieivn,, opaHaitJieatamia no npeHMy- 
mccxBy ciBepnuMX) nacxaMt llajieapKT0HecKOfi ofi.iacrn): 

Camponotus ligniperdus F. pressilabris 

Camp, vagus F: fusca s. str. 

Lasius fuliginosus F. gagates s. str. 

L. carniolicus F. rufibarbis s. str. 

L. umbratus F. rufib. v. glauca 

Formica rufa s. str. F. rufib. v. subpilosa 

F. truncicola F. cinerea s. str. 

F. exsecta F. cin. v. imitans 



— 21 — 

F. sanguinea Myrniica ruginodis 

Tapinoma erraticuui M. rugulosa 

Anergates atratulus M. sulcinodis 

Leptothorax tubertim (s. str) Strongylognathiis christophi 
Mychothorax acervorum 



ii 



Bcero 25 <|)opM^ hjih ok. 9,84"/,,. IToiTn bcIj srn ff)opiru, 
upoHajlJiejKainifl yM-fepeHHOwy K-iaMary, aB.iiiK)TCii no npeaMyme 
CTBy ofiHTaiejiuMH .I'hcOBT. HJiH creneB. 

H^KOTopufl 1131, HHXB fiuJiH vKasanu npe;K!IHMH aBTopaMH 
jt.ia CtB. AiiepHKH, HO iioKasanifl 3tb noToiii. ne no.iTBepjii- 
jiHCB '). OKasa.iocb npa (SaHStaiimeM't HSCJffewBaHiH, kotophm'f. 
Mu o5fl3aHu r.iaBeHMi> oSpaapMi) K. BsiepH, 'rro MHOrie h3t, 
eBponeScKO-aaiaTCKHXi iiypaBbeB^ HMbioTi) Bt ({jayni CiBepnoB 
AiiepHKH Becbua fJ-insKHxt copoj;HHeH, KOTopuo iixt Tavii w 
saMtHaioTX. Ji,JiH Har.iaAHOCTn npeiiCTaBBMi. TaKia ouKapuuH 
({)opMH B7> BH/i-h napa.T.iejifcHofi TaSjuau. 

Egpaaia: CiwepuaH AMepuna: 

„ . . , f Forniicii inteora (?) 

ronnica truncicol.i . . . . ' 

I F. ob.scurivcntiis 

r, r ( F- dakotensis 

r. ruhi { 

I T. (Jitfcilis 

F. cinerea F. pilicornis 

F. rufibarbis F. neorufibarbis (var.) 

F. clara F. neoclara (var.) 

F. gagates ■ . F. subpolita 

„ ,- f F. subsericea (var,) 

r. lusci •' 

\ T. subaenescens (var.) 

( F. rub'cunda 

F. sanguinea . { F. puberula 

1 F. obtusopilcsa 

F. exsecta i ^' exsectoides . 

F. pressilabris I F- ulkei 

'j OTHucHTejiSHO Myrm. sulcinodis Bonpocx eme He BaojiHt BHacHHaca, 
a MoxeT'B-eHTB ee cjitaoBaJu-fiH bkjio^htb bt, rpynny JtHpsyjcdopeajiHHX'B 
^jopjii. 



— 22 



Profoimica nasuta Prof, lasioides (?), 

Lasius bicornis L. minutus 

Prenolepis imraris v, nitens . . Pr. linparis s. str. 

r, , r f Pol- lucidus 

Polyergus rufescens . . . . ' 

[ Pol. breviceps 

Camp, sax.itilis f _, , 

{ L,. pennsylvanicuss s. tr. 
■ — japonicus ( 

C. li£;niperdus C. lign. v. pictus 

C. herculeanus v. montanus . . C. herculeanus v. whimperi 

C. mai-ainatus i. sp. C nearcticus 

C. ruzskyi C. minutus 

Colobopsis truncata Col. impressa 

Liometopummicrocephalumi.sp. L. microceph. v. occidentale 

Myrmecina graminxola .... Myrm. amerlcana 

Tomognathus sublaevis .... T. americanus 

Cremastogaster scutellaris . . . Cr. lineolata (?) 

Stenamma westwoodi . . . . St. nearcticum 

Aphaenogaster gibbosa .... Aph. fulva 

Aph. subterranea i. sp Aph. occidentale 

Myrm'ca rubida M. mutica 

M. ruginodis M. brevinodis 

M. sulcinodis M. sulcinodoides 

Mychothorax acervorum . . . Mych. canadensis 

Mych. hirticornis v. sibiricus . M. hirticornis i. sp. 

Leptothorax oxianus L, nitens 

Ponera coarctata P. pennsylvanica 

Tapinoma erraticum T. sessile 

Mh B0;iHMf>, qro HKCJO OTHX'B ({)OpM'I> WBOJIbHO 3HaHHTe.lt- 

HO. y HiKOTopuxT,, aHajorifl KOTopux'B HejiocTaTOiHO pasiac- 
Heaa, nocraBJieHT. SHaitx (?). 

5. Ki. (|)opMaMi uenmpa.ibHoasiamcKUMi, KOTopHxt no- 
;io6ho ;iHEOMy sKy, aprajia hjh yjiapy mojkho cinxaTb xapaK- 
TepHHM0 MS nycTUHi) H BHCOKHxi. HJOCKoropifi IlaMHpa, TaSeia 
H MonroJiiH, mm jiojhihu npaincJiHTb CJiAywmnxi: 

Camponotus tichomirovi C. f( dtschenkoi v. mayri 

C. buddhae Lasius flavescens 



— 23 — 



Las. emeryi 
Formica clara 
Cremastogaster subdentata 
Cremastog. bogojawlenskii 
Leptothorax bulgaricus v. 

melleus 
Tiept. parairicus 
Lept. oxianus 
Pheidole koshewnikovi 



Myrmica smythiesi 
M. smythiesi v. fortior 
M. dshungarica 
M. laevinodis v. minuta 

— V. tenuispina 
M. saposhnikovi 
Messor lobuliferus v. excur- 

sionis 



Bcero lOcJjopMi. hjih ok. 7,4Vo> KOTopaa Bci CBoflCTBeaHH 
ToiBKo oKpaHHaMi HafflBXi CpeAHeaaiaTCKHxi Biaainifi h Ch- 
6hph. HecoMHi&HHo HHCJio aio co epeMeaeMi ;i;ojiatHo 6jjs,GT'h 
SHaHHiejiBHO ysejiHiBTbea, Kor;ta SyAyTi. npoasBeieaH nospo6- 
Hua MapiieKOJiorHHecKia HSCJi'SAOBaHia CeMBpiqta, TaHt-IIIaHa, 
Tap()oraTaa h IlaiiBpa, Boo(5ine aamero BOCTo^aaro TypKecTaHa, 
paBBO KaKi H lOffiHHx^, rpaHHqam,ax^ ch Moarojiiefi OKpaaa'B 
ChShph; Tor^ja cwjia-ate no Bcefi BijpoaTHOCTH npajeTca npaqac- 
jiHTb H TaKJa $opMH KaKi Formica transcaucasica, Prof, aber- 
rans h var. nitidior, Myrmecocystus setipes, Myrm. foreli var. 
bucharicus, Tetramorium schneideri, pacnpocTpaaeHie Eoxopaxi 
aeAOCTaroiHO eme BHacaaJiocb h KOTOpna noKa ycaoBBo oxae- 
ceau MHOK) Bx spyria rpynuH. 

6) Kx (|)0pMau'i uupKyM^opeaJ^bHUM^ bjih tOAapKmmeCKUMi, 
npHaajiJiea;aai,BMi Kasi EspaBia, xaKt a CiBepaofi AiiepHEi, 
OTaoearca CJi'feAyroaiia: 



Camponotus herculeanus 

C. hercul. v. whimperi 

Lasius flavus 

L. rayops 

L. affinis 

L. rayxtus 

L. niger 

L. alienus 

? L. brunneus 



? Formica pratensis 
Tapinoma sessile 
Tetramorium caespitum 
Formicoxenus ritidulus 
Myrmica scabrinodis 
? M. lobicornis 

— var. schencki 
? M. laevinodis 
Mychothorax muscorum 



_ 24 — 

TaKHMi. o5pa30MT. nncjio oumaxi ChCku. AiiepHKoK ({»opMi 
cpiXBBHTeJt.Ho Heoo.ibiiioe^ cocTaBJfliomee Bcero okojio 7"'„ ucijxi. 
MvpaBbeB'b PoccIh; ho iipa dtomx ny;KHO npHHSTi, no uHusiaHie bo 
nepBHxr,, 0HeHi> Maaoe iiscffeAOBaaie boctoihoB CmChph, r,ii 
HafijieTCfl B-hpoHTHO MHoro (()opMT. MypaBbeex, oSmaxi. ci. C'fc- 
BepiioH AiiepnKofi, bo Biopuxr. anaHnfejinoe KOJiaqecTBO BHKap- 
HUX^ ({)OpMl, KOTOpUXT, 6ujio roBopoiK) Buiiie (cTp. '21). 

Rc'f; 3113 ({)opMij, 3a ncK.iioqenieMT. tojibko Tapin, ><essilr 
H Camp, herciil. v. wh/mpcrl, orjia'ifiiOTca oSnuipHbiMi pac- 
npocrpaaeaieiib h Hb cranio llapHOM:^ OTHOiiieuia pasanHUbi: oanfe 
xapaKTepnsyiori, crenfi {Las. (iiicnus, Mijnn. lobicornis), jipy- 
riii CBoacTBonHU .ihcaMb (6*. hcrculcanus ii var. ivhlmpcri, 
Formicoxenus lutidulns), 'rpexbn — ropaiii [Lasius myops). 
OrHOCirre.ibno Tetrnmorium caespitum mohjho jiyMaxb, ito 
OH^ saBcaenb BbCfeBcpiiyio AMopuKy irb noBbHiuee BpeMa hcjo- 
bIjbomi Hcpesb roproBiio. GQasojib BOiipoca OTMbqenu ({)opMu, 
naxdiKjenie KOTopi.ixT, in, CbR. AMopHitb iiysiHO cinraTb noKa 
H'fccKOJbKO coiinnTtMbniJjn,. 

b) Mypaebu — Koc.mno.iiimu cocraB.iaioTT. MHHHMa.?ibHrjfl 
iiponetiTb cocTasa MapiieKOifiayHu PocciflcKoa HMiifipia. Hxt. 
TOJibKO xpH Bnia — Monomorium pharaonis '), Pleidole meqace- 
phaln » Prenolepis oiv/diila^). CHonMb K0CMonojHTn3MOM^ ohh 
oCasaHH /iliin'e.'ibnocTH He.noBbKa: f)JiaroAapfl oiiy ii ero Topro- 
BHM-L cnomeHiflMi ohh, nO/iodHO MnoruMb ;^py^HM^ acBBOTHUiii, 
c.Tfe,iyiomHinj 3a qe.iOB'hKOMb Bt KaiecTB-fe ero saxpeSeTHHKOBx, 
nocTeucHiio paciipocTpaHajHCb noiin tio Bceiay CBtry h npcioji- 
aiaiOTT, pacnpocrpaHflTbCH. Hx'b po;iHHOH ciyntaT^ TponaKH, rjii 
OHH H iiocefliaci ntHByr^ b^ ecreCTBCHHoS oScTaHOBK'i, Bt GoJi-fee 



') PoiiHHa Monomorium jihar/ionis no Bccfl ntpoirmncTii liaxoAHTCa B'i 
K)/KHoii Aai'H, Bcero Btiintp ira Bohjckhx'i. ocrpoBax^. 

'') llejiaBHo Iv. 3 M e p H (934) Ha oCHoeaHiH cpaBHHTe.iBHarn iiscjit.aoBa- 
iiiH BHiiOB^ I'renolcpis paaAt.iHJi'fc STOTi poji-i Ha Tpn rpyiiiiH, ycTaHOBiiBi 
ABa IIOBUX'B Udjipojia; Prenolepis s. str., Nylandcria (u. subgj H T^JujjrenolepU 
(ii. subg). I'ren. I'ividuta OTueceiia hmi ki iio/ip. Nylanderia. BtpoaTHUMi oxe- 
•lecTBOM'B OToro BHiia ohi ciHTaeit AJiepHKV, HMeiiHO McKCHKy, oiKyjia oie- 
•BH,xHo oifB H Ohji'l paaseaeiib iio paaiiUM't cTpaua»i ct> xrbhmh pacTcuiaMH. 



aie HHSKHXt mapoTaxT., (5y;^y1H He npHcnocoi5;ieHHHMH rt, jm*- 
peaHOMy h xoioAQOMy KJiaMaraMi, ohh noceaaH3TCa HCicnioHH- 
xe.TbHO o&om qejOBfeKa, bx ero jojiaxi, b% opanacepeflx^, ren- 
jiHuaxi. 

BosMoajHO, qro xaKHMH ate RoCMonojiHTaMH C'l'bjaioTca Lasius 
niger h Tetramorium caespitum. 06a, ara BHjia saM'fiiaTeibHH rtiix, 
1T0 npH ofiiiinpHOMT. pacnpocTpaHeniH OT.iHiajoTca cnocoSHOCTtio 
atHTb npH pasHoodpasnuxx ycjiOBiax'B MfecTOoSaTania. Mu Bcxpfe- 
naenf. hxt. KaKX bi pa;«H"mHxx .rfecaxx, TasT. n bx pt^Htixx 
jiojBHaxB, na .iiyraxi, no CKJonani OBparoB^ h 6ajioK^ cpejiH 
cienefl, Ha cojionrtaxi, b'b sRH.iHmax'b <ie;iOBtKa, HaKOHeu^ h bt, 
aJibniScKofl odjiacTH ropi, ciobomi. BOo6me Ha pasHuxi no^Baxt 
H cpeAH pasJiHqnoS pacTBTejibHOCTH. ITpH TaKHXX ycJiosiax^ 
cymecTBOBania nasBanHuxT, bhaobi hh Becbma fJo.ibiuBxx paa- 
CToaniaxT. Bnojat ecrecTBeHHo O/Kujiarb, hto ojihhx usi, hhxx 
BMenao Tetramorium caespitum nojiBeprca snaiH'reJbHofi CTenena 
HSMtHMHBOCTH, pacDaBuiBCb Ha MHoria pasHOBHiHOCTa H pacH, 
VST, KOHXi. nfeEOTOpBia CA'ft.TiaJiHCb B0J^aMH. %0-ase Kacaerca 
Lasius niger, to ohx, naupoTaax, oTJiaiaeTCa ctoSkoctbk) cbo- 
Hxi npn3HaK0BX, ex BaMtqaxejibHUMi nocToaeCTsoMi yjiepiKHBaa 

CBOS BHJlOBpii lawh. 

Pasjiaqaua (|)0pMU Tetram. caespitum, oSpasyiOTX nfejuii 
panx M0iH({)HBania, npio(5p'feTaa pasJiaiHHe upaaHaKa h h3M'6 
Haacb R-h pas.iHHHHxx HanpaBJieHiax^ cofipasHo ex xapaKiepoMx 
o6jiacre8, r^b oh* pacupocTpaaajiHCi.. TaKx, $opMH nycTUHb, 
KOTopuMT. apaxo^HTca ffiHTb uoAt aaJiain,nMH .ly^aMH C0JiHi];a na 
rojoii, no4TH jiHuieHHofli pacTHTejbHocxH noiB'fe, oTaaqaroxca 
crjiaa;eaHO0, Sjiecxainefi noeepxaocxbio xaxaaa, oxcyxcxaieMi bo- 
jocKOBi, CB'Sxjioa OKpacKoS — xaKOBH: Tetram. caespitum inerme, 
var. meridionale, var. punicum, semilaeve, v. schmidti a ap.; (j^op- 
Mu Mte Oojite c'bBepHHXx MfccxHOCxefl h SoJ-fee xo-ioaauxt EJiHMa- 
xoB'b, jKaByiH,ia na xeMHon;BixHbixT> noHBaxx ayroBX bjib ji^cobi 
cpe;iH lycxofl xpaBaHBCxofi pacxBxejibHOCTH, BM'hioxi xcMnyio, no- 

"JTB lepHytO OKpaCKy, JlOBOJlbHO O^BJlbHyK) BOJIOCHCXOCXb H CBJbHO 

BBipajKeaHyro CKyjibnxypy Ch pisKBMH, rpy6uMB MOpmaaKaMH 
Ha roaoB'i h rpy^n {caespitum i. sp., var. foHe, ferox). Bi. ro- 



— 26 — 

paxx aie uu BCTptnaeMT. (J)opMKi xoth toh^c tcmho OKpameaHua, 
HO c-b riia;i;KO oaecTflu^efl rojioBofl, m neMf. BceraKH CKasaJiocb 
BJiiaaie apKaro ropuaro C0JiHi],a h Bfexpa (var. splendens). Jl^py- 
ria-iKe ^'OPMU xerpaMopiyiia vK-aoHH^iHCb b^ tomi OTHOiueQiH, 
iTo npio(5pfc;ia noBepxnocTb SpioiuKa hi^ rjiajiKyio h O-iecramyio, 
KaK'B y Bctxi iipoiHsi TexpaMopiyMOBX a BOo6me y rpoMajtaaro 6ojib- 
iDHBCTBa npeacTaBHTCiefi Myrmicinae, a CKyjBnTHpoBaHuyio, 
noEpuTyio npoji,oJibeo-uiTpHxoBaTUMH hjh cbTiaxuMH Mopmaa- 
KawH — 3T0 i{)opMH, aBHBiniaca B-fepoaTHO BuxoAii,aMU m-b bucokhx-s 
ropHux't. ofi-iacTefl i^eHrpaJibnoK Agin, a hotom-b nocieaenHO 
pacupocTpaHiiBiuiacfl no apajio - EacaiScKoa nycxuH'fe h aaibuie 
(Tttram. schneideri, striativentre, sericeiventre, reticuUventre). 
IIocToaQCTBo ate bt> npnaaaKaxt Lasius nirjer a ,TyMaio 
HyacHo o(5xflcnHTb rini oocTOflTe.ibcrBOMi., ixo axoTt iiypaseft 
npH pasHOofipasia juIjcxoaiHxejibcrBx, ecer^a BuSapaeTX) ce6is 
laKia M'fecxa, Koropua oxjiawaioTca 6ojte hjh jueafce sHa^HTeib- 
Bo3 BJiaavBoCTbio; apncyxcxBie usBfecxaaro KOJiaqecTsa bo^u bi 
no^B'S ji,Asi aero ueooxoAHMoe ycjiOBie; aa cyxax'b BO>iBaxi ou% ae 
/KBBexx. Boxb aoieay ons ocofieaao npOB.BixaeTX cpe^iu jiyroBt 
ptiBbix^ jiOJiam,, aa cojoau,axi, bx oropojiaxs h cajiax'b, b^ t*- 
aucxuxE. cupuXT. jicaxb (r;i;fe ra'ts^Hxca ae xoabKO B-b seM-i-fe, 
Bo a Bb aaax^) a x. ji. A BO.ia, Boo6a;e BjaiKaocTb, KaKb mu 
saaeM^, ypaBaaBaexi Kiasiaxbi, js/bssia dojfee ojiaooSpaaabiMH ycio- 
Bifl cyiuecxBOBaaifl a liwh cuoco()CTBya coxpaaeaiio xaaa, ito 
H CKaaaiiocb, bi. MHBbaxiop'fi KOBe4Ho, aa Lasius nig(r. To-ibko 
Bb oopaxib jKBBex'b oco6aa ({)opMa Lasius niger, B'fepoaxao doji'fce 
iipeBaaa qtMi. oax caiai. 

r) Bb (|)aya'6 Poccia au'Sioxca eme ji;Ba BHAa uiapoKopac- 
BpocxpaaeaHHe, apaHajiJeiKaatie no^xa Bcesiy CxapoMy CB'fcxy hjih 
X. BaauB. na.ieoieucKie, ecjia Cji'fi;i;oBaTb TepMBHoaoria C k .i e x e p a. 
3x0 — Monomorium gracillimum a Cremastogaster sordidula. 
IlepBuS, flvAyqa pacapocxpaaea^ bx Asia, Bb A^paK'fe a b'b 
lOffiaofi EBponi, Cuat, HaBAeax xaKate a aa ocxpoBaxi IIojiaHe- 
sia. Exopofi BHjiT., OKasaBuiiacH jiobo-ibho nojiBMop(|)aHMi, o6pa- 
syexx. n,ijibia paAi (})OpM%, CBoBcxaeHaux'B ae ToatKO Bocxo'iHOJiy 
KOHxaaeaxy, ho a Ascxpajia. 



__ 27 — 

TaBHMX oSpasoMT. npeo5.iawioni,iiMH bt> MapMeKO^ora^ecKOf 
4»ayHt PocciB (][)0pMaMH amsiorca toMHo-najieapKniUHecKia bjib 
HHaue cpeduHMHOMOpcKin: hxi rpoMa;iHoe 6oii.inHHCTBO, Sattin. 
cji^iyiOTi. eoponeitCKia, h eoponettctco-asiamcKiH, nAsie — cuGnp- 
ckIh. CpaBHHTCXBHO HedoJibmoe ihcjio uupKyMSopeaMHua^ 
(|)opMi BOMueHCBpyeTca sHaqaxejibHUMi KiuHqecxBOMt eunap- 

HUXZ $OpMl. 

OOaop-b paenpeff-bneHia pyecKHXi. MypasbeBTb 

no CTaUtHMTs. 

1. Sna^enie cpe^M bi. vKiishh >KHBOTHMX'b. Tpn ycaoaia, onpe- 
A'li-iHiomiH oTHomeiiie >KiiBOTHaro k-i. cpe^i. CTauin h hxi» 

noflpaSA't-ieHia. 

nepeSaeMT. Teaept k^ pascMOTpiaiK) pacnpejitjieHia uy- 
paBbeBi Poccia no tSmi fiio-iorHiecKHMi rpyiinaMx, Koxopua 
MH HaauBaeMi cmania,MU. Kaat;i;afl crania saKJuoiaeTx b-b ce64 
oape;i4jeaHHH KOuajieKCB (j[)opMT>, CBasaHHUxi o6in,HOCTbK) MicTO- 
oOHxaHia. Mh snaeiii, mto BcaKifi b0;i;i atHBOxHaro^ Bcaiaa 
(|)opMa npiypoHeau ki, BSBicTHOny MicTooSaxaHiio, npH^ent 
6o;if)raafl qacxb $opM^ oSHKnoBCHHO nptijiepacHBaroxca cxporo 
KaKoro-JiHfio onpe.^'fejieHearo MtcxooCHxaHia, ho ccxb h xaKJa, 
Koxopwa MoryxT. ajHXL Ha pasjiaiHuxx MicxooSHxaHiflxi. 

XapaKxep^ iilscxooSHxaBia KaatjioS ataBOXHofl ^opsia, KaE'E 
H3Bicxeo, BuxeKaeri 03x xtxi caoaieuxi, cjiaraiomaxca hcto- 
pHHecKH, cooxHoineHifi, Koxopufl cymecxByiox^ MejKj;y axoB (|K>p- 
Moft H oKpyjKaion^HMH ee ycjioBiaMH cymecxBOBania. BcaKoe kb- 
BOXHoe xicHo CBaaaHO ci bxhmh OKpyaEaroiii,HMH ero ycJiOBiaMH, 
HaxoAHxca bo BsaHMO^tficxBiH ex OKpyataromeK ero cpewfi- Yc jo- 
Bia 8xofi cpe;iH conpoBoatiiaBOxi maBoxaoe bi xetreHia BceS ero 
ffiasHH, oxi MOMCHxa poac;5eHia h ;io cuepxa, MorymecxBeeHHiii 
odpasoMi Bjiaa na ero atasHi.. Ho h caMO mnBOXHoe He otho- 
cBxca naccHBHO ki BOSAificxBiio cpejiu; oho xasx hjh Bsa^e 
pearapyexi Ha axo BOSA'iScxBie Bciwi cymecxBOMX CBoefi opraHH- 
3an,iH. 3Kh3hi> atHBOxaaro, TaEHM-B ofipasoMx., caaraexca h3t> ot- 



— 28 — 

,Tfe.ibnuxT> jio>ieHioBT. pasHooSpasHraxx B-iijiaiB Ha Hero OKpy- 
ataiouiHS'ij ero ycjoBiS n poaKnifi na hhxi ero opraaHSMa. 
iKHsiib Kaffiflaro JKHHoinaio sauHCHT^: 

1) KaK^ oivibjibnaro i!n,iHBH,iyyMa — on. OKpyaiaFomaxi. 
ero t|)H3cK'>rcorpa(j)H'iecKHxx yc.iOBiil; 

2) KaK'6 orxLiLnaro ()ioaTa, t. e. q.ieaa oBpysaioataro ero 
iiipa ajHBUxi. cymecTBi,— oti. Bsaniiaux^ oriiomeiiifi ci jipyriiMii 
opraHHSMaiin, 

II 3) KaKT, npe.icxaBnTe.ifl HBii-fecTnoii (})aynu, KaK^ JKareja 
DsiitcTHOff CTpaiiij — on. reorpa({)nqecKaro tio.iojKeaia othoch- 
Tc.ihuo nenxpa ero iipoiicxo-«K.ieHi>i u ott, nyreK, no KoropuM^ 
!l.lo ero pacnpocTpaaenie hu i^eiiHofi aoBepxaocTH. 

3Ea^ai"i>, ipH YC^iORia oapejkiaioxx amsat axHsoinaro Bt 
Ka;K,io8 jiaHHOti M'fecTaocTii: ojhh — ({)H3io.iorn'ucKi£, BUSunaeMUfl 
BdBjiiHCTBioM'i. ({)aKTopoBT, aeopraaniecKofi cpe;ii.T, itaKOBU BO,m, 
BOsjyxL, Tesiiiepaxypa, nniua, jtaB.ieaie axM0C(|)epH h cb^ti, jipy- 
ri;i — tincxo Giojorn'iecKifl, xpexMi — reorpa(J)niecKifl. ^xo6h, aoaxo- 
Mv, aoaaxb ;KH3ab ^iHBoxaaro, BUJicanxb Bci ea iipoaBJieaia a CBasb 
CI. BBMH ero opraaHaaniu, 'ixo n cocxaBJiaex'b oj.ay h3^ ochobbhxi 
3a;;aqi. uioreorpa({)in, ;i.ih 9xoro iivjkho oiipeiitjiBXb B.daaie 
bc'IjXi. 9xnxb xpfxx. \cjiOBift ua a;ii3nb h oprauB3an,iio atBBox- 
aaro, a cji.iaxb aaueaiainyio oivtuKy ax'b Baa^eaifl B'b npoai- 
.loiii H Dacxoaa;eMx. ji^ia ^aaaaro JKUBOxaaro. 3aAa4a axaKpaSae 
xpyjiaaa a bX) Bucaiea cxeiieafi cjoffiaaa, xpe^yioaiaa Cb ojhoh 
cxopoaiJ xmaxe-ibaFJXX,, npo;;o.TffiBrejuabiX'b aaS-iioieHiii as't na 
jiicxi, Benocpe,'icxBeaao bt. iipHpOA'}', Cb jipyrofi — hsb^cthoS, 
BOSMO/KBOfl apoBtpKii Hxx. onuxBUMx. nyxeMX-. 

H3X. vKasaaabixi ycJOBia cpaBaaxeJibHO Jierie noseaioxca 
uepBHa, X. e. mhcxo ({)H3iojornqecKia yciOBia cya^ecxBOBaHia. 
Obh GoJi'ie jiocxynBU Haojuoaeeiio a oriuxy. Hsyiaa hxt., mr 
iiOHteM'b noBxopaxb hx^, BHAoasMtHaa a KOMSaaapya pa3,!!HM- 
HtiMx> o6pa30iix.. Bxopua, x. e. 6ioJioranecma ycjiOBia cyaiecxBO- 
Baaifl, ropa^AO CJOiKa-fee a xpyflatS jiia asyieaia. Obh BuxeKarort 
H3^ aoxpi^HOCxeii /huooxHaro Kb naxaHiio a pasMaoseaiio, t. e. 
npeaijie Bcero aai. safioxi ero o caMOM't ceoi, o CBoeMi a, 
3axiMb ocaoBBJBaioxca aa jxioCbb ataBOXHaro ki CBoeMv noxoa- 



— 29 — 

CTBy H noneqeaiaxTj ero o neu-b h, HaKoneii,i, na crpeMJieHiH 
ero Ki o^mefliio ci. ^ipyrBMu cymecTBaun, t. e. Kii oSmecTBeH- 
HOCT0. Bt CHJiy 9THXI noTpe^HocTeH H ;5ejiaaia y;^OBJIeTBopHTb 
HMi H iipoHcreKaiOTX bc'Ij tIj cjoffiHua cooTHOineHia, EOTopua 
cymecTByroTT) y Bcanaro mtiBOTHaro Cb jipyrauB npejcxaBHTe- 
^iflMH opraHHiecKaro Mipa. Pery.inpyioToi-jKe 8th cooTBomeHia 
TviaBHUMx oSpaaoM^ 6opb6oS 3a cymecTBOBaHie. TpeiLH ycjiosia 
cymeciBOBaeia onpe^liJiaiOTca HCTopHiecKHna npHqaaaiiH, no^t 
BJiianieMi KOTopHXT. bo BpcMeHH n npocrpaacTBife pasBBBa^iacs 
atHSHf, Ha seMJit. KaK;iu8 Bii;n> HvHBorHaro jojffiea'b 6uji'h bo3- 
HHKHyrb Ha KaROMi, HaSy^b nynKxt seMHofl uoBepxaocTB, bt. 
KaKOMT, HH6y;i;b i^eaxp't, otb KOToparo oht. h Haqaii pacnpo- 
CTpaaaibca b% HSBfecxaoMi aaupaBjieaiH. Bayat^aa h crpaaciBya 

no 3eMB0§ UOBepXHOCTH, BHJIH JKHBOTHUXl JlOJiaXUH 6bIJH HCnU 

THsaTb Ha ce()4 Bcfe xi HSMtaeaia, KOxopUMx. ara noaepxHocxb 
nojBepra;iacb, asMfeaajiHCb cawH, npacnocoSjaacb k% hobhm'b 
ycjioBiaMi cymecxBOBania. Hsyqaa nepecejieaia atHBoxHHx^, ^ibh- 
aceaie hxx no seMaofl noBepxaocxH, mh y6tai;(aeMCa, ^xo hh 
oiBHi) ^anT, He Haxo;iHxca bt. cocxoaaiH aficojiiOTHaro noKoa; 
oa% Bciiii cyiD,ecTB0MT> cbohmt. yqacxByexi bo BceoSmeMb ^sa- 
menivi, coBepuiatoa^CMCa BOKpyri. aero n bt. bcm^ caMOMi, yqa- 
CTByexi bx. HenpepuBaoMx. HSMtaeaia sejiaoa BOBepxaocxH. Yew 
ma SH3BH H nepecejieHifl ojibbxi bhaobi jkhboxhuxx cjioaia- 
jiHCb xaKHMi o6pa30Mi, qxo oan bx. ;xaHHH8 Moweaxb aaaHMatoxi 
6o.iiie lUH Meate rt'Sjibayio. HenpepHBHyio o6jiacTb pacnpocxpa- 
aeaia. /l,pyrie-ace B^jna OKasrjBaioTca pacapocTpaaeHHUMH ne 
cnjiomb, a cnopa;iBiecKH, 9to bbau npepuBnaxaro aaa pasofia^ea- 
aaro pacnpocxpaaeaia; axi mh hohth Bchxi, uosiewb c^axaxb 
peAUKtnoabiMu, xasx KaKx> hi SojibraoacTB'S cjiyiaeai aio oneab 
ApcBaie THaa, ocxetkh npeataaxx. $ayHTi. HM-feioxca a xasie em.e 
BBjIu, Koxopue, saaHJiaa cnjioniHyio oSjiacxb pacnpocxpaaeHia, 
B% Toate BpcMa BcxpiqaioTca a Bai ea Ha oxjt^JibHHXi, pas- 
(Spocaaauxi ayHsraxi oSaxaaia ci> o^pe;^'6JIeHBHMH ycaoBiaMH, 
HM^romnMH xicHyto csasb hjih cb axi nponiJiHMi pacnpocxpa- 
HeaieMi, hjib cb HopMajibauMx xapaKxepoMO) H^cxoofiBTaHia, — 8x0 
bb;(bi $K3oiiKUHecKato pacnpocxpaHeHia. TaRoe 8E3oSBH?ecRoe pac- 



— 30 — 

Hpocxpaeeaie Ch oahoS cropoHH Mo^exi vKasHnaTb aa npeat- 
Hioio fio-iie oCJmnpayK) oSjiacTi,, KorAa-TO duBrayro saaaToS bh- 
Aowh, a CT> ^pyroiS cxopoau Moateti 6uti> BusBaao h nosAaiS- 
mawh pacnpocipaaeHieMi. BB^a, t. e. c.rfcAOBaTe.ibHO Bt stomt. 
aocjiiAHeM^ cjiyHai SyAexi) oSosaaiaTb TenAeBn,iio BH^a k^ jaab- 
a'SBineiiy pacnpocTpaacaito o6jacTH CBoero aopMajiiiaaro oSa- 
Taaia. HaKOBeii,x, Hyatao HiifeTb bi bhav h xasie bhah, koto- 
pae 03^ npeiijOBx OJjacTn CBoero aopua-ibaaro pacnpocrpa- 
Heaia saaoceaH naccuBHO B^ Apyrifl, naorjia oieab oiaajiea- 
Bua, M'tcTaocTH HCJiOBtKOMi HJiB TCpeai. nocpejiCTBO ffpyraxx 
^aKTopoBi, HB^iaa upaM-fepi anoiSlKU'iecKcno ') pacnpocTpaae- 
aia. Tasie bhau OT,.iH4atoTca iiaBnoxapaKiepaocrbio M'icTO- 
o^maaia u ntcia iix^ BTopnqaaro noce.ieuia ae HM'fciori. 
HHKaKoro OTHomeaia kb oGjiacxa ax^ apeajaaro, aopMajibaaro 
pacnpocxpaaeaia. 3xo bh^ih ^copaue", o^uKaoBeaao ofimapao 
pacapocxpaaeaHhie, oxjiHHaK)m,ieca rpoMaAuovi npHCB0Co6;iae- 

MCCXblO. 

IIOAT. BJiiaaieux. Bcfcxi BuaieyKasaaabixi ycjiosiS bx xeie- 
oie HBeicxaaro nepioAa BpeiienH aa seii.rh cioatHJacb oapeA'h- 
aeHBua SiojioraqecKia rpynnu, Bupal5oxa,iHCb ocoSue 30o6oxaHH- 
lecKie xanu bjh (|)opiiaa;iH — axo xaKia K0M5HBaB,iH ^KHBOxaaxi. 
H pacxHxeibauxx ^opM%, aaapaateaie aiH3BeHauxi> chjit. h aB;ie- 
Hifi Koxopuxt aaxoABXca bt. abKoxopoMb ycxoSiHBOMb paaaOBi- 
cia. Oaa apeicxaBJiaioxx, codoio ooBOKynaocxb ycJOBiB, busu- 
BaK>a;HX-B BSBfecxayio rpynnapoBKy bh,t;obi pacxeniB h aiaaoxabixi., 
-onpcAijiammHxi pacapocxpaaeaie KasKAaro BBAa h peryjHpyio- 
m.HX'b ero oSpasx. atasHa. TaitHx-b ochobbuxx. XHnoBX> uu paaaa- 
^aeui Bx npeA'fe^iaxx Poccia lexupe: .atci, cxenb, nycxwaa a 
ropaua o5;ia,cxH. Kaa?Au8 m% 3xbxi. xhuobx bi cbok) oiepeib 
pasAijaexcfl aa cmauiu (stationes) ^). Cxan,ia a:e Moryxx. duxb 



') 06a nocJitiiHie TepsiHHa BBejeHH (5h.ih BiiepBHe bt. GoTaHiiKt noKofl- 
HHHi> aKa;^eMHKOM^ C. H. Kopjkhhckhjix (cm. ITpH.Toa:. k^ iipuTOK. sactii. 
KasaHCK. 05m. Ect., J6 87;. Ohh Buoaii* uphm'^hmmm h b^ sooreorpatjiiH. 

') TepuHHi 3I0TT., npewoffieuHMfl HeAftBHO Hainmii. aHTojiojoros'B A. II. 
CeMenoBUMi-TaH B-III a h c k h ml (Cm. PyccK, 9htosi. OfiosptHie, 1 9( 6 r., 
J6 1—2, Ot«. KpHTHKo-CHfijiiorp., cTp. 108; BMtcTo npeKuaro «cTauniH», mh* 
•suteTCfl, aoiiKeHi (Shtb npanaTi saK^ uecosiHtHHO Soate y^aiEHft unpaBHaB- 



— 31 — 

noj[pa3ji4.ieHU na fiojiiie weJiBia EaxeropiH, na CTa^iH 2-ro no- 
pa ake HJI0 nodcmauiu (substationes), a 9tb bt. cbok) onepeAt 
pacaaiaioTca na eme MeHsniifl ejiHHHi^H, Ha MrbcmoHaxoofcdemii 

.licaafl $opMaT];ifl pacna;taeTca na cjiijiyiomia CTactia: Taflry 

B.IH e;iOBO-nHXTOBHfi JiIjCI,, JIHCTBeHHuS .Uici H C0CH0BH8 6op'fc. 

«I>opMan,ia ctchh saKJUOiaeTi. hi ce6'fc cTai^in: qepnoseMHyio 
(KOBHJibHyio H jyroByio) CTent, KaMenHCTyio CTcnt, cojtOHqaKO- 
BYM H cTeni. KycTapHHBOByio. ^opiiauia nycTHHH coctohti h3^ 
CTai;ifi: necjaHaa nycTUHa, ranHHCTO-noauHHaa h KaiieaHCTaa. 
FopHaa oljiacTt, no MceMy MH-iHiio, cojiepjKHTi. MaBHUMt o6pa- 
30MX jiB§ xapaKTepnua cxaniH: a.ihni'UcKie Jiyia, npocTaparomie- 
Cfl OTT. BepxHeJt rpaHHu,!)! ji^cob^ so noAHOKifl JieiaHEOBi,, h 
topuyw cmem hr KaMeHHCT0M^ rpyHti Ch cj\a,6o paasHTHMx 
noiBeHHMM^ nospoBOM^ H c% cpaBHHxeibHO 6'hmo^ xpaBaHB- 
CToS H KycTapHHKOBOfi pacTHTejiEH0CTi.ro. 3Ty HMeHHO CTan;iro, — 
BucoEyro BaropHvio cxenb, a ciHTaro ^peBHie paBHHHHofi CTena, 
BT. ocoCeHHOCTH lepBOseMHofl, H ;i;yMaio, ito ^ayaa nocj'fei.Heft 
BCAeTi. CBOe npoHcxoJK^eHie ot-b aepBoB. To^ho Tasate h (|)ayHa 
HVCTRBH oiCBHAHO 6o;iie nosjaaro npoHCxoHiji,eHia, h^mx rop- 
Haa, no Bceme ;i;peBH4e HepHoseiiHoa cxeiin. jl^aate, mh* Ka- 
xetcz, 1T0 $ayHa cocHOBHXi fiopoBi speBHfce, h^mi. jiHCTBeH- 
HHxii JiicoBi, a 3Ta nocji'fejiHaa cxapuie Tafiru, aBjaromefica bo- 
o6ii;e noBH^BMOMy Haa6o;i'ie hoboS cpcAH Bcix't JiicnHXTt 
CTanifi. 

PfbHHUH dojiUHbi TaKffie ;tojiatHH 6uTb paacMaipHBaeMH KaKt 
OTflijiBHaa CTaii,ia, xoTa OBi raKoro mtjbHaro xapasTepa u&Kh 
BHineyEasaHHHa ae HuiiOT'B. Pt^HHa ;^0JIHHu, npoxoina qepeai 
/tpyrifl craii,iB, o^uKHOBeaao BaawcTByiOTt HtEOTopue BJieMeaTEi 
Bxx ^ayHH, H noToiiy cxai^ioHapHoe BHatteaie bi nCTHBaoMi 
CMucjt cjOBa oh4 HMtroTi TOJibEo MR bo;i;hux'b o6BTaTejefi. 

IIoffCTamaMH Taflra woryT^ 6uTb qacTHfi ejioBO-naxTOBHfi 
jitcx a CMimaHaHK; — aHCTBeaaaro j'ica: ;jy6oBHfi jiiei ct> npa- 
nicbto Apyraxi mapoEOJiHCTBeHHux^ nopoAi aa ciseplj, (JyEO- 
Bufi aa wri aaaaA*, a depeaoBOfi j'fici. CocaoBue 6opu pac- 
Ha;i;aK)Tca aa cjffi^tywmia substationes: cyxofi cocaoBHfi eopi., 



— 32 — 

iiiuHCTua 6opx, CMiniaHHwa 6o\)^. CfOAa-se bi KaqecTBi sub- 
statio MoatHO npniHCinrt. ii JHcrseHHaqaug 6op^ bi, oumejii 
oqpHb cxojiaufi no cbohmt. ()ioJorH4eeK0MT. ycjiOBiawh ci. cocho- 
BUiiT, oopoiix, paBHO KaKT. H fiopx, pa3BHTtifi na CKa.iaxT. h 
yiecaxi. "lepHoseMHyio cxeiib mbi aoTRewb noflpasAi-THTh na 
KoohUhHyM) ci npeof).iajaHieMi pbjiKo pacrymuxi ;iepHOBHHX 3Jia- 
KOBi, BX ocoOenaocTH iniiqaKa h KOBu.iefi, h .tyioeyw, pasHOTpaBavjo 
Ch ciLioiiiHUMo TpaBaHHCTUM^ uoKpoBOMX, cpe,"!;!! KOToparo KO- 
Bhijfl coBciMh Moajert. h iie fiuxb; KaMeHucmaa cmenb raKiKe 
oyAGTh OTJHiiaTf.ca xapaKTepoiii. pacTHicibHocrn n (jiayHW, 
CMOxpa iiOTOiiy (>y;ieTT>-.iu oiia pasBHxa na sifejy, Ha rpyQuxt 
BSBecTnaKaxb, na iiepre.!i4 hjh ua CKaaaxi h t. jj, 

I'acnpeA'fejeaie MvpaBteBT. no BciMt arnMi. cTan,iaMT> n 
So-iije iieJiKiiM^ uxt, no^tpas^tlijeaiJiMi) npe;i;cTaBJfleTx pasjuv- 
uuH xapainepeua ocooeanocTu, OAHrojimpa KoiopuMi Kaffiitaa 
cxan^ia HiiiexB cBofi cneaiajTbaufl MHpsieKOJiorHqecKia odjHEb. 

2. Tao.inua paciipe,Th.-H'iiiii MypaubeB'i. no r.iaBHWH'i Turiaji'b 
II cTauiaji'L, paBiio icaiv'L ii no reorpacjjii^iecKiiM'i. yiacTKaM'i, 

Poccin. 

Ilpeatjie niMx. nepefixa ax. pascMorp-feHiK) pacnpejiiaenia 
iiypaBbeBi no cxaB,iaMx cocTaBjeniio cnncKOsx (JtopMx, xa 
paKxepaux^ jiJia xoa n.iH xpyroS cxan,ia, mu BupasHMX) axo 
jt-Tia acBOCXH bx bha* c.rljjiyfoaieH xaOjiamj, Koxopaa npejicxaBdxx. 
C060H) cnncoKx BcfexX) (JjopMT> MypaBi.eBi, ji,o chx'b nopx HaSAen- 
Huxx BX. npejiijiaxi PocciH. Bx neS-JKe oxiiiMeao pacnpocxpa- 
Henie oxAiJibH taxx (J)opMX bx PocciH no CJi'tAyioa;HMX KpynnuMx 
yMacxKaMx, na EOxopHe mh ;ii.a0MX xeppaxopiio PocciflcKoa 
HMnepia: EBponeScKaa Poccia, KpuMX, KaeKasx, ChOhpb h Ty • 
paax. 3aaKx -t- yKasHsaexx na npHnaweaiHOCxB ^opjiu kx 
HSBicTHofi cxaqia n Baxoat;ieHie bx tomx bjih ApyroMx ynacxHt. 
SnaKi X oSosHaiaexx, qxo xa bjih apyraa ^JopM* BCxpiqaeTca 
03pi;!i,Ka BX HSBicxaoS cxai^iB, ne (5y;iyiH OAaaKO xapaKTepaofi 
MS nea. 



33 






iA3BAHIE BHAOBX, PACl H 
PABHOBHflHOOTEfl 



1 Camponotas tichomirovi 

2 — bnddtaae 

3 — fedtschenkoi 

4 — V. obliquipilosns. 

V. mayri 

tnrkestanas 

7 — dichrous v. ferganensis 

8 — T. flavonitidns 
— tnrkestanicns 

10 — silvaticus 

1 1 — cognatus 

12 — xerxes 

13 — aPthiops 

14 — V. silvatico-aethiops 

15 — V. concavns 

16 — V. silvaticoides . . . 

17 — V. glaber 

18 — herculeanns 

19 — V. montaoaH .... 

20 — V. sliitkoTi 

21 _ V. whymperi .... 

22 — V. sacbalinensis . . . 

23 — ligniperdus 

24 — saxatilis 

25 — aterrimns 

26 — vagus • 






a. 



o 






•3 



Cm 



? + 



? + 



? + 

? + 

+ 

+ 

+ 

4- 

? 

+ 



H 

O 

+ 
?+ 

? + 



n 

0. 

faS 



OS 

eg 



at 
(4 



a 

03 

ex 



X 



+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 

4- 

+ 



?+ 



+ 



+ 






+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
4- 

+ 
X 



?+ 



H 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



4- 



4- 



4- 
4- 



4- 
4- 



+ 



4- 



4- 



4- 
4- 

3 



4- 
4- 

4- 
4- 
4- 
4- 



4- 



— 34 ~ 






HA3BAMIB BHJtOBT), PACE H 
PA3H0BHJI,H0CTEfl 






1^ 






o 



D9 






:4 



a 



mar^inatDS __j-___ — — + 

2i — rnzskyi - + — — x+ — + — + 

'29 — V. kamensis ...... — + X 

— lameerei . . 

31 — qaadrinotatns _4-___ — _ — — — + 

it — lateralis (typ.) .... — x— + — — + — ? + 

33 — V. atricolor -___^-_ — + + + + 

34 — V. mernla ___4._ — 4-4- + + 

35 — interjectus _ _ _ ^ 

36 Colobopsis trnncata — + — __ — __ + + 

37 Prenolepis viTidnla , 

38 — imparls t. nitens ... _-i-— __ — — — — + 

39 Lasius niger + + H-+ — + + + + 

40 — T. alieno-niger .... — +x + — + — + + + 

41 — V. pinetorum __ + __ — 

45i — emarginatns _ + — ><_ — 

43 — flavesceus — — -)___ — 

44 — alienns — X+ + 4- + + + + 

45 — V. lasioides ___><;■+-— — — — + + 

46 — brunnens — + __ — — + 4- + 

47 — V. pallidns — 4-_?-4-_ — 

48 — emeryi —____ — -(- 

49 — foliginosus — + ___ — — + + + 

50 — carniolicns — — + + x — — + — ■¥ + 

51 — flams + + _ + _4- + + — + 

52 — V. fuscoides _ _ .}- 



+ 



+ 



+ 



■4- 



+ 



+ 



35 — 



w 

iH 



Hi3BAHIE BBAOB-B. PAC^ H 
PASHOBHaHOCTEft 



S3 

54 

55 

5« 

57 

58 

59 

60 

61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 






— V. odoratas .... 

— myops 

— V. flavoides .... 

— nmbratus 

— exacntns 

— mixtus 

— bicornis 

— V. affinis 

Formica rufa ...... 

— V. mevidionalis . . 

— triincicola .... 

— v. yessensis . . . 

— pratensis 

— uralensis 

— exsecta 

— V. rnbens . . . . 

— pressilabris . . . . 

— V. rufomaculata . . 

— fusea 

— r. gagatoidea . . . 

— gugates 

— V. mnralewiczi . . 

— transcaucasica . . 

— rufibarbis . . . . 

— V. glanea . . . . 
- V. Bubpilosa . . . 



+ 



+ 



4- 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
XI — 



-+- 



X 



+ 



X 



X 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



M 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
-I + 

+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 



4- 



+ 



+ 



+• 



4- 



+ 



+ 



4- 



—I 4- 



4- 



4-' 



4- 



4- 



4- 



4- 



4- 



4- 



36 



79 


HA3BAHIE BBflOBt, PACL H 
PASHOBHftHOCTEtt 


u 

•as 

ci 


■so 

"=: 

a 
a 

9 


e9 

© 

o 


a 

H 


03 

a 

H 


0) 

a 
a 
•1 

o 

« 

S3 

•^ 

a. 


a. 
o 


'o i 
^ i 

o. — 
a 1 1£ 
S3 


to 

<a 

H 

m 


■a 
a* 

« 

a 


tf 


— clara ........ 






X 


4- 


-+- 


•:'4- 


4- 


4- 


- 


4- 


4- 


+ 


80 


— V. caucasica ..... 


— 




— 


X 


- 


— 


4- 


— 


- 


4- 


— 


— 


81 


— einerea . 


- 


- 


4- 


X 


- 


4- 


4- 


4- 


4- 


4- 


4- 


4- 


82 


— V. imitaiis 


- 


— 


-+ 


X 


+ 


X 


- 


+ 


4- 


4- 


4- 


4- 


83 


— V. armenica 


- 


- 


— 


X 


X 


— 


+ 


- 


— 


4- 


- 


— 


84 


— sanjruinea 


X 


H- 


+ 


+ 


— 


X 


X 


4- 


+ 


4- 


4- 


4- 


85 


— 7. mollessftiiae .... 


- 


— 


?+ 


+ 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


86 


Proformica aberrans 


— 


— 


— 




V4- 


— 


?4- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


87 


— v- iiitidior . • . . . 


- 


- 


— 


— 


-r 


- 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4-, 


88 


— nasuta 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


+ 


- 


— 


4- 


4- 


4- 


4- 


4- 


89 


Myrmecocystns bicolor ') . . . 


— 


— 


— 


X 


+ 


— 


? 


— 


4- 


4- 


— 


4- 


90 


— setipes 


- 


- 




— 


+ 


- 


?4- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_i_ 


9i 


— V. tnrcomanicns .... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


?4- 


- 


- 


4- 


— 


4- 


92 


— V. liiciJus 


— 


- 


— 


- 


+ 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


93 


« 
— altysquarais r jakobsoni 





— 


- 


— 


+ 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


94 


— foreli 


— 


— 


— 


- 


-L- 


- 


- 


4- 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


95 


— V. bucliaricus 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-X- 


— 


— 


— 





— 


— 


4- 


96 


— V. gracilens 


— 


- 


— 


- 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


97 


— albican s 


— 


— 


- 


— 


+ 


— 


- 


- 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


98 


— pallidiis 


- 


— 


- 


— 


x. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


99 


— taiicrei ....... 


— 


— 


- 


— 


+ 


— 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


100 


— aenescens 


— 


— 


X 


+ 


4- 


— 


4- 


4- 


4- 


4- 


— 


4- 


101 


Polyergus rnfescens 


— 


X 


+ 


+ 


- 


— 


— 


4- 


? 


4- 


— 


— 


102 


Acantholepis frauenfeldi . . . 


— 


— 


— 


X 


4- 


— 


- 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


4- 


103 


— V. nigra 


— 


— 


- 


- 


4- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- : 


104 


— V. semenovi . . • ... 


— 


- 


- 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 



') Myrinec. bicolor P.=Myrm. Fiaticus y. desertorum. For. 



— 37 





HASBABIE BHJOB'B, FiCB B 
PASUOBKJlHOCTEfl 


a 

SB 

m 

Eh 


m 
te 


o 

O 


MS 

a 


i 

a 
1 




a 

© 


.5 
'5 

o 

B 
o 


54 


01 
M 

ea 


a. 

eg 

<o 

n 


S3 

a 

E-i 


10 


) — V. arnoldovi 


- 


- 


- - 


- — 


- -+ 




- 


— 




- 


- 


4- 


; in« 


Plagiolepis pygmaea .... 


- 


- 


- - 


- -+ 


+ 


X 


: X + 


4- 


+ 


— 


4- 


^ 107 


— V. pallescens 


- 


- 


- 


-f 


+ 




- 


— 




+ 


— 


4- 


lOb 


Dolichoderus 4— punctatns . . 


- 


-4- 


- 


— 


— 


X 


- 


+ 


? 


+ 


— 


— 


109 


— sibiricus 


— 


+ 


— 


- 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


110 


Tapinoma erraticum 


— 


+ 


X 


X 


-+- 


X 


X 


+ 


+ 


+ 


— 


4- 


111 


— niger^imura 


— 


- 


X 


+ 


+ 


- 


- 


+ 


+ 


+ 


— 


4- 


112 


— sessile 


— 


— 


__ 


?+ 


?+ 


- 


- 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


113 


Lioraetopum microceplialnm . 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


■+• 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


114 


Bothriomyrmex meridionalis . 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


- 


-- 


+ 


+ 


— 


4- 


115 


Cremastogaster scutellarls . . . 




+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-1- 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


116 


— V. selimidti 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


_ 


— 




— 


+ 


+ 


_ 


*— 


117 


— auberti v. sorokini . . 


— 


— 


- 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


lis 


— laestrygon 


— 


— 


- 


+ 


?+ 


— 


- 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


119 


— V. striaticeps 


— 


— 


— 


?+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


— 


4 


— 


120 


— karawaevi 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


- 


— 


- 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


121 


— subdentata 


— 


>c 


— 


,-1- 


+ 


- 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


4- 


122 


— V. scaLrida 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


-+- 


- 


— 


123 


— V. Havicapilla .... 


— 


— 


- 


— 


+ 


- 


- 


— 


- 


— 


— 


4- 


124 


— sordidnla 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


+ 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


4- 


125 


— V. flachi 


- 


— 


— 


X 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


4- 


126 


— V. koBti 


— 


— 


- 


+ 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


4- 


— 


— 


127 


— bugojawlenskii .... 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


128 


Solenopsis fugax 


— 


X 


■X 


+ 


X 


X 


— 


+ 


+ 


4- 


— 


— 


129 


— orientalis 


— 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


_ 


— 


+ 


— 


4- 


4- 


+ 


130 


— V. kasalincnsis .... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


4- 



— 38 — 



■Jk 


HA3BAfllE BHaOB-B, PACB H 
PASHOBHJlHOCTEt 


eS 
oS 


flS 

Od 


a 

o 

o 




n 


s 

BS 

o 
X 

ti 

B" 


a 


o 
a. 

pa 


1^ 

a 




Su 

oa 




131 


— orbula v. latroides . . 


— 




— 


+ 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


132 


— (ieserticola 


- 


- 


- 


- 


-f 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


133 


Tetramorium schneideri .... 




— 


— 


?X 


+ 


X 


- 




— 


— 


— 


+ 


134 


— striativentre 


— 


— 


- 


- 


+ 


X 


- 


— 


- 


— 


— 


+ 


135 


— caespitum 


X 


+ 


4- 


+ 


X 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


136 


— V. ferox 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


- 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


137 


— V. forte 


- 


X 


X 


+ 


- 


- 


— 


? 


+ 


-r 


— 


— 


13S 


— V. sploiidens 


- 


- 


— 


+ 


- 


— 


X 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


139 


— v. reticoli?entre. . . . 


- 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


140 


— V. meridionale .... 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


+ 


- 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


+ 


141 


— V. punicnm ..... 


- 


— 


- 


+ 


+ 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


142 


— semilaeve 


- 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


+ 





+ 


143 


— V. sclimidti 


— 


— 




+ 


+ 


- 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


H- 


144 


— inerme 


— 


- 


— 


+ 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


-1- 


145 


StronstyJognaihns testaceas . , 


- 


+ 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


- 


— 


+ 


- 


— 


146 


— chrlstophi 


- 


— 


+ 


+ 


X. 


+ 


- 


+ 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


147 


— V. retbiiideri 


— 


+ 


- 


— 


— 


— 


?+ 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


US 


Myrnieeina graminicola .... 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


149 


Pormicoxenns nitidulus .... 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


- 


— 


- 


+ 


— 


+ 


+ 


— 


150 


Anergates atratulus 


- 


X 


X 


+ 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


- 


151 


Tomognatus sublaevis .... 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


152 


Myrraoxeims gordiagini .... 


- 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


153 


Leptothorax bulgaricns v.melleus 


- 


— 


— 


?+ 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


154 


— satuniiii 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


+ 


- 


+ 


155 


— pamiricns 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


156 


— nassonovi 


— 


— 


X 


-h 


X 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


+ 


+ 



39 





HA36AHIB BHAOB'L, PACB H 
PASHOBHSHOCTEft 


as 

m 
6« 


n 


o 

S 

O 




B3 

w 

g 

p 


PI 

s 

H 




.3 

o 

o 
en 

ri 

o 

0. 
n 


a. 


g 

i 


>4 

At 

5 


1^ 


157 


— volgensis 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


+ 


- 


— 


— 


- 


158 


— tnbernm 


— 


X 


+ 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


4- 


4 


— 


— 


159 


— V. nigriceps 


— 


X 


X 


+ 


— 


- 


— 


+ 


— 


4- 


4 


— 


160 


— stipaceus 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


4 


— 


161 


— corticalis 


— 


+ 


X 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


- 


— 


162 


— V. korbi 


— 


?+ 


— 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


163 


- eiilis 


— 


X 


X 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


164 


— affinis 


- 


+ 


X 


— 


— 




— 


4- 


- 


+ 


— 




165 


— kirillovi 


— 


X 


— 


+ 


- 


— 




4- 




— 


— 


— 


166 


— oiianuB 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


- 


4- 


167 


— nnifasciatns 


— 


X 


+ 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


4- 


4- 


— 


4- 


168 


— V. anoplogynns .... 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


169 


— V. tanricns 




X 


? 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


— 


170 


— nylanderi 




+ 


+ 


— 


— 


— 




4- 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


ni 


— parvnlns 


— 


+ 


+ 


— 


- 


— 




— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


172 


— alpinus 




- 


— 


— 


— 




4- 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


173 


— melnikovi 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 




— 


4- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


174 


— servienlus . , . • . . 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


175 


— T. branneri . . . . • 


— 


+ 


— 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


176 


— nigritus 


— 


v+ 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


177 


— semenovi . 


— 


— 


— 


X 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


4- 


178 


Temnothorax recedens 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


+ 


_ 


4- 


— 


— 


179 


— rogeri 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


180 


Mychothorax acervornm .... 


+ 


4- 


+ 


— 


— 


X 


+ 


4- 


? 


4- 


4- 


+ 


181 


— V. nigrescens 


+ 


+ 


+ 




— 


— 


- 


4- 




— 


4- 


— 


182 


— V. superus 


— 




— 




— 


— 


+ 


4- 




— 




— 



40 











to 






-a 

a 
















HA3BAH1E BHJIOBX, PACX H 






o 




6! 


t! 




O 
Pi 


a 

a. 


I? 




f 




PASHOBHJlHOCTEfl 


■ea 
en 


n 

H 

■ 
«=5 


33 

o 




a 


a. 


5 


o 
n 


C9 


S 




18, 


i — iiiuscorum 


X-. 


- 4 


- - 


. - 




• 4 


4- - 


■ + 4 


— 


184 


— V. fagi 




-f 


- 


— 


- 




- 


4 


- 


4 


- 


— 


18£ 


— V. seamiii 




+ 


4- 


- 


- 




- 




— 


4 


- 


— 


1S6 


— flavesceiis 




- 


+ 


- 


- 


- 


— 


4 


- 


— 


- 


— 


187 


— hirticorilis v.sibiiicus. 




+V 


? 


- 


— 




- 


— 


— 


- 


4 


- 


188 


Cardioeoiidyla cle<»aus 


— 


— 


- 


+ 


4- 


X 


X 


- 


— 


4 


— 


— 


189 


— V. uljaiiini 


— 


- 


- 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


19U 


— stambulovi 


— 


— 


— 


X 


4- 


■^+ 


— 


— - 


— 


— 


4- 


191 


— V. koshewnikovi . . . 


- 


— 


— 


+ 


4- 


— 


— 


4 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


192 


— bogdaiiovi 


- 


- 


— 


- 


X 


— 


4 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


- 


193 


Mononioiiura saloinoiiis .... 


— 


- 


- 


X 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


+ 


194 


~ venustiim 


— 


- 


— 


— 


4 


— 


— 


- 


— 


- 


— 


4: 


195 


— gracillimuni 


— 


- 


— 


- 


4 


- 


— 


- 


- 


— 


— 


4- 


!96 


— barbatulum 


— 


- 


~ 


— 


4 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


197 


— pliaraonis 


- 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


- 


4- 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


198 


Pheidole pallidula 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


+ 


— 


X 


4 


+ 


+ 


- 


4 


199 


— V. areiiarnm 


— 


~ 


— 


- 


4- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


200 


— kosliewnikovi 


- 


- 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


201 


— megacephala 


— 


— 


X 


- 


4- 


— 


— 


- 


— 


+ 


— 


4- 


202 


Myimica rnbida ....... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


— 


4- 


4- 


— 


4- 


- 


— 


203 


— rngosa v. kirgisica . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


204 


— smythiesi • . 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-f 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


+ 


205 


— V. fortior ...... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


- 


— 


- 


4- 


— 


206 


— dsbungarica ..... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


207 


— laevirifldis 


+ 


+ 


+ 


X 


— 


+ 


+ 


4- 


— 


+ 


+ 


+ 


208 


— V. ininuta 


— 


- 


- 


— 


. 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


— 


-S 


+ 



41 — 






2U9 

210 

211 

212 

213 

214 

215 

216 

217 

218 

219 

220 

221 

•222 

223 

224 

225 

226 

227 

228 

229 

230 

231 

232 

233 

234 



HA3BAHIB BHAOBt, PACX U 
PASnOBHIHOCTlfi 



— V. tennispina ... 

— rnginodis 

— bergi 

— var. barchanica . . 

— staugeana 

— scabrinodia 

— V. lacustrls 

— V. salina 

— V. bessarabica . . ■ 

— angnlinodis 

— rugulosa 

— lobicoriiiB 

— V. schencki 

— V. deplanata 

— saposhnikovi .... 

— kas'^zeukoi 

— suicinodis 

— V. nigripes 

— commargiiiata .... 
Utenamma westwoodi 

— V. hirtula - 

— asiaticum . 

Ischnomyrmex rhaphidiiceps . 
Aphaenogaster subterranea . . 

— kurdica 

— gibbosa v. uiuBchtaidica 



+ 



+ 



X 



?+ 
X 



X 



+ 



X 



+ 



?+ 

+ 
•? + 



+ 



4- 



?+ 



? + 



+ 



m 

ea 



ea 



B 



+ 






+ 



4- 



+ 



+ 



? + 



X 
X 



?4- 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
4- 



+ 

+ 
+ 

4- 
4 



as 
as 



4- 
4- 
4- 
4- 
4 
+ 



+ 



4 



+ 



4- 
4- 
4 



?4- 



X 



+ 



+ 



-f 



42 — 



HA3BAHIB BHAOBl, PACL H 
PASHOBHJIHOCTEft 



M 


m 


n 


BS 


a 


ft^ 


H 




O 


w 


!^ 


» 


a 


*• 



at 
m 



235 
236 
237 
238 
239 

■m 

241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 



— V. subterraneoides . 

— testaceopilosa 

— V. semipolita 

— oksidiana 

Messor structor 

— V. clivorum 

— tataricus 

— lobnliferus t. exeursiouis 

— barbarns 

— capitatus 

— V. aralccaspius .... 

— V. meridionalis . . . 

— V. jakowlevi 

— V. semirufns 

— aegyptiaeusT.incoiTiiptng 

— striaticeps 

— caducns 

I'onera coarctata 

— V. lucida 

— ochracea 



+ 



X 



+ 



•?+ 



?x 

X 

X 



?+ 



+ 



+ 



X 



+ 



X 



X 



+ 



+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 



X 



X 



+ 



+ 



?+ 



+ 



Hsi 9T0fi teSjihii,!! bh;i;ho, hto HaaSoJibinee BOJiHiecTBO 
(i»opMi npHxoAHTca Ha ji,oiK> KaBKaaa, HMeHHo oe. 135. B% o6- 
JiacTH Typaea, st npeAiJiM BOToparo a BKaroHaio Tasaie 3aKac- 



_ 43 — 

niflccKyio, TyprafiCKyio h CeMBptqcHCKyio oCiacTH h KaprBS- 
CKyio cienB jio CapeniH h EpreseB, KoacTaTHpoBaHO so caxt 
nopi 119 (fopMV, saxiMi bi EBponeHcEoa Poccia— 105, bx Ch- 
6hph — 80 H h-b KpHMy — 52 '). 

Bx BKoaorHqecKOMi OTHomeHiH b^ ^aHHOfl lafijiHi^i bh;i4- 
jieHu ToaBKO Haafiojite KpynHaa rpynnti, HMeHBO $opMH, npH- 
Ha;iJieatani,ia jitcaMt (Tafirt, cocHOBOMy 6opy h HepHOjicbw), 
jiajiie cTena, nycTHH*, piqauMi. AOvinaaMB a ropaui*, npa stomi. 
OKasaJOCB, ^to -nicHHa $opMH bi MapMeKO^orHTOCKOft 4>*yH* 
Poccia npeo6aa«aK)Ti: hx% aacqaTUeaeTCa 197, asi Koaxt TaB- 
ri npaaaweatati 26 ^opin., cocaoBOiiy 6opy — 72 a aacTBea- 
BUii-h JiicaMi — 99. CTenaM'B CBoficTseHHO 119 ^opwi, nycTH- 
aaMx — 95, ptqtaHMi Ao-iaaaMi — 36. B^ Bucosofl o6jiacTH ropi 

oSHTaCTB 74 $OpMH, 

3. 06maa xapaKTepHCTHKa cTanift h rpynnnpoBKa b-b nnxiy 

(liopHt MypaBBeBTi. 

Maoio 6ujio yate yBa3aH0, hto MapMeKO-JoraiecKaa ^ayaa 
Poccia COOTBtTCTBeHHO OCHOBHHM'b sooSoTaHaiecKHMi TBnaM% 
ea pacna^taeica aa ^eiupe raaeHua rpyana: atcHyH), CTeaayK), 
nycTUHHyio a ropHyro. UepeftAeMi reaept ki ^exajtHOMy pas- 
CMOTpiaiK) 9TBX1. rpynQ%. 

Jliicaaa $ayaa aaaHuaeTi noaocy Tafira, jacTBeHHHXi Ji'fe - 
coBx H cocHOBuxB 6opoBB na.5eapKTHiecKofi o6jacT0, T. e. cii' 
;ioBaTeji>Ho BCK) ciBepayK) nojOBHay EBpoaeScKofi Poccia a saa- 
iHTeaBByK) lacTb Cafiapa no Taxaro oKeaaa, otrpaaaiBBaacB 
aa cfeBept TyajipoB, aa lori CTenaMa; sarfeMi oaa xopomo bu- 
paaieaa aa KaBsaai ch ero orpoMBUMB aiicaMa, qacTBio b-b 
KpHMy a Bi cooTBiJTCTByionuBX'B MtcTHOCTaxB TypKecTaaa. $a- 
yaa cTenHaa saaaMacTB boo nojocy CTeneB aa lort EBponefi- 
cBoa Poccia, B-B SaoaAHOfl a MKBoft Cadapa, saa^aTe^BHyK) sacxB 



') ^Kciia 3TB utcsoABEO Be coBQaftaKiTi e% I'&UH, KoiopHE spHBeaeHH 
Bi nepBoS ^acTH Moero Tpyaa (loc. cit., cip. 770); o6iacHaeTca 8To ihcto cjy- 
•laflHHJiH oniH6sa5iH, jOHymennHMa TorAa oMaciH upa noAc^ei* ^opMS, rjias- 
HHH% ase oCpasoMi npH soppeETypi. 



— 44 — 

EpHnia HcisepHoe ETpe^KaBKaabe. HycTHBHaa ^Ayna. oxBaxuBa- 
exii noJiocy nycTHHb IIa.ieapKTH4ecKoa o(5jacTH b^ iipe^jijiaxi 
PocciE, T. e. fiojibinyK) Macib Typaaa. HaKOHei^i, ropHaa (|)ayHa 
npuHajiJieajHT'B ropHUMi) ofijiacxaMx Kpaua, KaBKasa, Fpaja, 
ChShph, TypKecxaea h ITaMBpa; KpoM* roro en npejicxasHTeJiH 
Bcxptqaioxca eme MicxaMH sa aana^ji EBpon. PoccIh no oxpo- 
vawh Kapaaxx bi <J»aBjiaBjii0. 

JrbCHaa (payna, cymecxBOBaaie Koxopofi xicao CBssaao 
ex -licoMx, y Haci bi Poccia, cxpaai oShjibhoB JiicaMH, paa- 
BHxa oqeHB xopomo h nojHo. CooSpasHO xapaKxepy Haraaxi 
ji'fecoBi. oopasyioinHX^ ,iBi nojocu — crbeepuyw CMoraHyio 
wMHym npepHBiaxyio hjh roMHie CKasaxb: nojocy aicOBx ci- 
Bepawx^, H/tymaxT, bi, Bujii; HeapepuBHOiB, mopoKOfi nojiocH, 
no.iocy .licoBi roatHUxx, pa3,T;'fejieHHax^ cxenaMfi nyciHaaMo, 
.^fecnaa MapMeKoaorH'iecKaa (J)ayHa pacaajaexca na ctbdepnyw 
H wMHyx). IlepBaa BOO()me ;iOBO.iibHO dijiaa npe;icxaBHxejaM0 
oiieoofipasaa, Bxopaa — cpaenHxejibHu 6oraxa 0mh a 6oJiie pasao- 
oSpaaaa. CiBcpaaa .licnaa (J)ayHa oopaayeii: l)$ayHy cnaoui- 
Horo XBoiaaro jica 0.10 xaSra; '1) — ctBepHaxi. JiacTBeHHHXi li- 
coBi, pasBHXHx^ npenMymecxBeHHO aa cyr.i0H0Cxo8 noHBi; 
3) — cocBOBux^ SopoBt Ba necKaxx yiecaxi. lOfflaaa (|»ayaacBoS- 
CTBeHHa aicaM^, pa3B0rHM'i. aa lori Espoa. Poccia, bi> Kpu- 
Mv, aa KaBKasi, bi. TypKecTaai bt. BocxoiboM Ch(50P0 
(YccypiacKia Kpafi). Meatviy jiByMa 8T0M0 (j)ayHaMH HMiexca 
T^sKh nocTeneaHHxx nepexonoB^, 6jiaro;tapa KOxopHMi, crjaffl0Ba- 
exca pasjHTiie bx exi xapaKxept n cocxaBi. IOjkbhK xbb^jio- 
cxBeaauxi. licoBi Esp. Poccib npe^cxaBJieHi bx B0;ii mapo- 
EOJiHCXBeHHuxx jiicoBt ci (JvKOMi H xpaCoMx, pasBaxuxx aa 
3 K)3, 0J10 Bb B0jii He6ojibiij0xx cxenEUxx (^afipaiSHXt) 
jicoBx, ^peHMy^:^ecxBeHHO ;iy6oBuxx h BasoBHxx, b-b joacaofi 
no.!iOB0Hi Esp. Poccia, /iaaeKO BM;iaK)m0xca ocxpoBKaua h no- 
-TOcaiiB BX crenayio oojacxb, h o5pa3yK)n;0Xx xaKX BasHBaeiiyio 
jijcocxenb bjih upe^cxenie. Jica sxa uepexo;i;Haro X0na. 

4>ayHa xa8r0 a ctBepaHXx jiHCXBeaBuxx JiicoBx 6'fi;iHa 
(|)opMaM0; (J)ayaa cocbobhxx 6opoBx oichb CBoeoSpasHa. Dpo 
(|)ayBy roataaxx jiicoBi, Haafio-iie 6oraiyiO npeflcxaBBxejiaMH h 



— 45 — 

pasHooSpasHyio, ayatHO CBasatb, ito oaa eme otchi Maao hs- 
cstKOBaHa, a bi BoctohhoB ChShph h bi TypKecTan-fe no^xH 
BOBce He HSBicTHa. MeaiAy bc4mh axHMH THuaMH bctb MHoro 

06marO, OHH HMilOTt MHOrO OAHHaKOBHXl. (|lOpM%, T^Mt Be MC- 

H^e ecTB H pasjHiie Kasx bt. OTHOineHiH rpyanHpoBBH bh;[Obi, 
HXi o60TaH)iu,HX^, TaKi H npHCyTCTBia bt, Kaatwfl hsi hhx^ 

0C06UXX HMl TOJIBBO CBOfiCTBCHHUXI. $OpMl. 9tH TO HMCHHO 

HO (|)opMH, asaaromiflca xapaKxepHHWH AJia xofi aaa jpyrofi cxa- 
riiH, sacjiyaiHBaiOT'B ocoSaro BHHMaHia, xaK-B Kasi npn^aiox^ 
xoT% oco6Hfi oxneqaxoKi, xy oco6yio 4>H3ioHOMiio KaKX Kasciofi 
cxaii,iH BOoSine, xaKi h ea 6oJiie mcjikhmx noApas^ijeHiaMt 

Bl ^aCTHOCXH. 

Taftra. 

Ta«?ta, KaRX bbb'Sctho, npejicxaBJuaex^ raHpoKyio, u^JiBHyio 
noaocy xBofiHaro aica, cocxoamaro raaBHHMi oGpaaoMX H3i. 
ejiH. nHxxu, cocHH, a bi ChChph eme le^pa h aHCXBesHHi^H, 
c^ npHM'tcbH) MtcxaMH 6epe3H h ochhh, npoiaayBinyioca iojk- 
e§e xyHjipH ot% CKaHjiBHaBiH no Eep. Poccia h Ch6hph, h 
saxBaxuBaiomyio Cojsbmyio ^acxt Ypajia. wi oea cnycBaexca 
noixH ]i.o 53" c. map. kx lory. Ha ciBep§ xafira HesaM-fexHO 
^epesx noflci. BpHB0Ji4ci.a nepexo;(Hxi b% Tjanpy. Ha lori oaa 
rpaHHqHT% ch no.iaMn h aHCXBCHHHMH aicaiiH, T. e. xaKX Has. 
nojiocoa ocxpoBHHX^ ji-fccoBx; ea.ioaiHoB rpaBHaefi bx cpesHefi 
Poccia cjiyffiaxi HHataee xeTCHie KaMH h Bepxaee Bo^ra; Hasa- 
naA* ate xafira jtocxHraexi no^xH ao Saccefiaa HpHnexH. Tafira 
HMieii xHU^ ^tpeMyiaro, MtcxaMH xpyjHo npoxoAHuaro Bciis- 
cxBie 6ypeji0M0B^ h BajieatHHEa Jiica, nepesieataiomaroca ct 
oSmapHMMH MOXOBHMH H TpaBaHHCTElMH SojioxaMH. BcjiiACXBie 
py6KH H noatapoBt una bo MHOraxx Micxaxx, ocoSeHHo na cbo- 
ea loatHofi rpaHHui, HOCHXi xapaBteps CMiinaHHaro jica, ne- 
peffyacb ch. yjacxEauH naxaxHHx^ uoJiefi h jiHcxBeHHHxi Jii- 
coBi, Bj;aH)iAHxca ;taaeE0 bb xafiry h nocxeneHHo pacopocxpaHa- 
lomaxca B-B HeS no rapaMi h ji,o.mndi.in. p-fesx. T-Smi Be Menie 
HeaBsa cEaaaxb, ^to6u xaflra oxcxynajia; HaupoxHBi, CEopieHa- 
;^o sonycTHXB, ^lo ona Me^JieHHO ;;BHraexca bi lory h sana^y. 



— 46 — 

3oojiorHHecKi8 TH^^ ea mo.toaoS, noBH;iHMOMy He Bnojet eme 
c^opMHpoBaBiniaca. 

MnpMeKOitorHqecKafl (J)ayHa Tafira coctohti h3^ cjii&;iyK)- 
mnxi (})opM^: 
Camp, herculeanus (h var. sliitkovi) 

— ligniperdus — muscorum 

— saxatilis Myrmica laevinodis 
Lasius fJavus — ruginodis 

— niger — angulinodis (Ch6.) 
Form, rufa — kasczenkoi (Ch6.) 

* — pratensis (rufo-pratensis) — saposhnikovi (Ccm.) 

* — exsecta — rugulosa 

* — pressilabris Formicoxenus nitidulus 

— fusca (h v. gagatoides) * Tetramorium caespitum 

— sanguinea * Formica rufibarbis 
Mycliothorax acervorum (h v. nig- * Myrra. lobicornis 

rescens) 

KypcHBOMi m, crincRb OTMiqeHH (jjbopMH, ocoSeHHO xapaK- 
TepHHfl jjfl xafirH; kt> ohmi ate no BceB sipoaTHOCTH npajterca 
npHHHCJTHTb Myrm. angulinodis h kasczenkoi. SB-fes^iOHKa no- 
cxas^ieHa nepe;ix TaKusm ^opmawH, kotophh coocTBeeno hc npa- 
HaMeatax-B xaflri, no ycnt,;iB ^la^eKO pacnpocTpannxBca Ha cfe- 
Bepi rjaBHUMi. oSpasoMi, no cochobhmi. fiopaax, no npociKaMx. 
H rapaMx, no cKJioHawi, piiHuxi jfii^wb. Lasius niger fla- 
vus npHjuepatnearoxca 6o.iibme KyjiBxypHHxi pafiOHOBX h ^ojihhi 
piEi, xoxa Bcxpiiaioxca h bt. :i'6cy. 

HiKoxopua (f)opMij nnxepecHH xiMx, ^xo Moxo^ai'h no ca- 
Mofi ctBepHofi OKpaHHH xaSrH, no rpaHHi^H ea ci xyH^poffl, sxo 
— Camp, herculeanus v. shitkovi, Form, fusca v. gagatoides, 
31ych. acervorum, Myrm. ruginodis- Ho Bonpoci xomx, ain- 
Bvxi-aH OHH B^ caMoB xyHipt, H B0o6^^e BCTptnaBoxca-Jia xaMt 
KaKie HHfiyjtb MypaBtn, noKa ocxaexca oxephxhm'b. BBcnsABi^ia 
H. AKa;neMiH HayKi ea Ho^yio Scmjio (bi 1896 r.) He HaniJia 
xaMi MypaBteB^; ne nsB'fccxHH ohh hbi ninHi];(JepreHa, hh Ch 
Me;iB4jKBBX^ ocxpoBOBT.. npaBj(a, (Jtrjia pasi yKasana ojiHa iinp- 
MHKa noax> HMeHeMi Myrm. rubra L. (Curtis) hm BpaSaa- 



_ 47 — 

ro cisepa AMepHKH, HMeHHO ch apKTHHecEaxs ocTpoBOBi, Jneasa- 
mMXT, B'B aaaaxBoS ^aciH Ba(j[)^HHOBa Mopa'}, ho sasaa 9X0 HMeHHo 
dujta (|»opMa h apn KasHxi ycjioBiaxi HaflaeHa— ne H3BicTH0 (mo- 
sRer-h 6i3Th Myrm. scabrinodis var. glacialis For.). OxHOCHieabHO 
XByx^ aepBHxi BumeyKasaHHHXi (j^opjit Hyatao saM-fiTHTii, hto F. 
fiisca V. gagatoides oieai. 6 jaaoKt Ki F. gagates a <ransca«casica, 

CBOfiCTBeBHUXX TJiaBH. oSpaSOMt rOpaHlH BUCOEaUl KaUeHBCTHU'B 

CTcnflMi; a C. herculeanus v, shitkovi ^o HSB'j&CTHofi CTeoeBH 
aHajiornieHx ex ropHHMi C. herculeanus v. wionto^ws; — sji^cb 
eme paax noATBepasaeica (^BKVb cxo^ciBa HSB'fectBHX'B shbot- 
HHXX KpafiHaro ciBepa cb oSHTatejaitH ropi. 

Eoibmaa qacTb MypaBteax, atHBymaxt Bt xaSri Hxapan- 
xepHHxi wa Hea, He HCKJio'iBxeJibHO eft CBoficxBCHBH; ohh 
aBJaioxca o6n;eJi;£cHHMH ^opuaMH, h6o Bcxptiiafoxca Bt jih- 
CTBeHHHxx Jiicaxx, dyjiyiH xaMx M^cxaMU CTOJb-ate o6hkho- 
BesHH KaKx H Bx xafiri '). H bxo noKasuBaex'b, ^xo pissaro 
pasjiHHia MeiKfly xafirofi JiHCXBeHHHMX ji-fccoMX booSe^c atxt 
H ox^tijaxb ax'b cxporo Heibsa. Taflra at CBOeMi nepBoSuxHOMt 
cocxoaaiH, x. e. r.iyxofi ejiOBO-nHXTOBOfi Aics, Boodn^e nopaaa- 
xejibHO 6§SHa ^opMawa cpaaaHxeabHO cb jiacxBeHHUMx ji^comx; 
9X0 neJRAj upo^HMx oSiscHaexca liwh, hxo MHoria KaeoxHua 
jBCXBeHHHX'i ^licoBx npH o;iHOo6pasiH schbhe h% xa8r§ ae aaxowTx 
Bi aefi HeoSxoiHMuxx ycjioaifi wa cymecxBOBaaifl a noiOMy ae 
Ecxpiiaioxca xawi. Cjia6oe ocBinxeaie, ofiajie BJiara, 6t;iH0cxb 
xpasaHHCxaro noKposa, bx ocotJenHocxH siaEOBi a Maoraxi. abj- 
lOJibHHXx pacieHifl, saiomaxx npiioxx tsbut>, asaavoxca o6cxo- 
axeibCXBOKx, MtraaiomHMi MHorajtii BBiaiix MypaBteax nocejiaxb- 
ca Bi xafiri. TaKx, aaap., Formica sanguinea .^iBsfiaxt wicxa 



>) Cm. Ot^bm o6t SKcnejiHiiiH H. Ak. H. Ha HoByB 3eiiaio atioHi 1896 r. 
r. SEoficoE'E, Sooaornq. HacatAosaHia tn, Hob. 3evjii b^ 1896 r. ffaciso- 
MHa Hob. SeusH, CTp. 219. 3an. H. Ar. Hayiti ao $is.-uaT. otx. or. YIIl, 
% I, 1899. 

») Toae HyxHo CEasais ■ npo uHorHxi apyrax* %hboihiix-e lairH; 
TaKi, aanpHH., Taxia thohvbbx ^opiiH, xaKi T.iyxapb, pa6qiis%, vepHBS X'texi,, 
HHXKK1, JiicHax Eyuiii;a, (ijcEa, qepaaa raADKa, Lacerta rivipara n Ap., BCTpi- 
qauTca ofiH^no k vb ciapBX'E jBCTBeHHaxi ajbcaxi. 



48 



CBiMwa, xoporao ocBiiqeHBHa coJH^eM^; wa Form, exsecta 

Heo6xOaHMH SJiaBH H OTKpbTTHa TpaBaHHCTHfl HpOCTpaHCTBa. Th- 

nBHHHe-ate asHTejH Tafira, HaupoxHBi, jrofiax-B Bjiary rish, 
jaae oneBHAHO HyaK;taioTca bt. hbxi. Botx uo^eMy, nocejiaacfc 
BH§ TaBru, xaKJa $opMH en KaKx Formica fusca, Myrmica laevi- 
nodis H ruginodis Bcerjia saHHMaiOTi cbohmh reisjiaMH Micra ch- 
pEia, BJiaaKHHfl, KaKi-xo Jiyra pi^HBixT. aosbet,, oKpaaHHHKO^- 

KH (jOJIOT'b, COJIOHI^H, TtHHCTHC Cepcra pi^CKl H OSCpi. 

B% ffiBBOM-t. iiepCBi atHTejiB laSra pt^KO nocejaiOTca; ohh 
npejino^BTaiOTi cyxie, OTMBpaiomie ctbojih jiepeBteBi bjib dhh, 
BT, KOTopHxi npoTa^HBaiOTi xo^h; xaKHte cejaxca no;ii Kopofi, 
HaxacKBBaa ciojia seMjrio a pacxHxejbHyio xpyxy. MejKia $opAiH, 
KaKi Mychothorax acervorum, acHByxi B^ xcjim* Kopa nHefl 
H ocHOBaflia jtepcBBeBi.. 

Ilpa 6JB3K0MI COnpHKOCHOBeHiH J^HCTBeHHUX^ JI'feCOBI ct 

xafirofl (JiopMu nocjii^iHeS HenocpejtcxBCHHo npoBBBajH bi hhx^ 
H nocxencHHo pacnpocxpaHa.iBCb ;!a.iBine Ha lovh. TaKx, Hanp., 
Form, rufa, F. fusca, Myrm. laevinodis xenept ;(oniJiH ji,o 
KpaSHflro npejjija JiicoBi Ha wri Espon. Poccia (HMeHHO ;to 
CapenxH); eme roffiHie, nocjii nepepHBa, oSpaayeMaro cientK), 
OHB BMtcxi ex Camp, herculeanus a Mychoth. acervorum 
Bcxpiiaioxca na KaBKas'fe, ho keki npoHHKJH xy^ta, bjth Moacext 
6hxi> HtKOTopne cymecxBOBajia yae xam paHBme pasBaxia xafi- 
ra Ha cSBep-S, b6o JSBByxi xaM-B jiaace bi aJiBniflcKOi! oSjiacxa, 
ociaexca hc oSiacHeHHHMi. 

Hsi noJOCH jiHCXBeHHHXt JiicoBi B^ xafiry npoHBKJiB 
Formica exsecta, F. sanguinea, Camponotus ligniperdus, Myr- 
mica rugulosa. Hst hbxx apoBasHfi uypaBCfi {Form, sangui- 
nea), KaKt XBHaqHufl pa()0BJIafl4JIe^^, Hamejii xaMi. ;iJia ce- 
Ga oneHB yAo^earo h noKJtajiBCxaro pa6a bi jihi;* >iepH0(5ypa- 
ro jicHoro MypasBa (Form, fusca). Formica exsecta, BaKt 
a AyMaro, npoasonieji^ oxi cxennoro Form, pressildbris, xasxe 
nocxeneHHO npoHBKaBraaro k^ C no (5opaMi b cKJioaawB piq- 
HHXi ;^o;IHH^ Bi JiicHyK) o(5^acxB, Ha npoHCX02:;ieHie F. ex- 
secta HMeHHO ovh pressilahris HaMeKaexx bo 1) cymecxBOBaHie 
nepexojlOBi Meat^y ;i;ByMa axBica <j[)opMaMB; bo 2) xapaKxept 



— 49 — 

M*CTOo6HTaHitt Form, exsecta, Bcerja nocejiflioraaroca He b^ 
Ham'6 Jiica, a ea onymKaxx, nojHHaxi, no npocfeKau^, cpeia 
pi.iiEOJiicba HjiH MejiKOJiicbfl, na rapax^, nopySKaxi), mo6u\e 

Ha M§CTaXl Ch XOpOmO paSBHTHMX TpaBflHHCTHM^ nOKpOBOMl.. 

TaKoa-ate npeoS-iajiaioruiB xapaKxepi M"fecTOo6HTaHifl aj F. san- 
gmnea, Myrm. rugulosa. Las. niger h flavus, Torja Kasi Camp, 
herculeanus, Form, rufa a Myrm. ruginodis, saKX THnniBBie 
atcHHKH, HtHBVTi B^ caMOM^ jiicy H ducTpo HciesafOTb aoc.it 
ero py6KH. HaKOHen,^ xapaKxepHaa oco6eBHOCTi. Form, exsecta 
o6pa30BMBaTb BOJioaiajibHHe MypaBeflHHKw. pasM'SnieaHue na 
6o.ibiuofi ii.iomajH. yKasHBaexi) Ha cbo8ctbo, npHcymfe rjae- 

HUMT) 06pa30MI. (J)OpMaMl., oSHXaiOmHMb Ha OTBpBlTHIX^ UpO- 

CTpaecTBaxx, a ne atHxejiaMi Jiica; spoM^ Toro h MaxepiajiH 
j.iia THis^a y exsecta scerjia. TpaBaHHCTtie. Form, pratensis 
npoHHKi. Bi> Tafiry HSb cxeneH lepesi cocHOBbie (5opH a xaiMX 

OOpaSOBaJl MHOrOHHCaeHHHa aOMiCH Cl 6jIH3K0 pOJlCTBeHHUMt 

eny F. rufa. Saxtwi Bct {{)opMbi, oxMtieHHHa sB'fcs^ioiKoa bt, 
cnHCKl;, paBHO Kaa^ h Camponotus saxatilis, Mychothorax 
muscorum a Las. flavus, npeHMyn^ecTeeHHO CBoficTBeeHu cocao- 

BUMl BJIH IHCIBeHHHqHHMb 6opaMX. TaKHMl OSpaSOMl MHpiieKO- 

jiorHHecKaa ({)ayHa xafira, Bsaxafl b^ i^'6jomx, npejtcxae^iaexi .10- 
BOJibHo cJioaiHyio KOMfiaHai^iK) (|)opMi pasjiH^Haro npoHCxo?K;ieHi3, 
pasjiHiHofi jiaBHOCxa oxH0CHxe;ibHO hxi noceaeHia Bt xafirt n 
pasaaro xapaKxepa cBoero ocnoBHoro MicxooOaTaHia. Bciie no;i;- 
poSaoe paacMoxpiaie ea noKa npajiexca ocxaBHXb sa ae;iocxax- 

KOMT. Ba6jK)jeHi8. 

JlHCTBesHHe Jitea 

lucmeeuHue .tnca, jeatamie sa xaflrofi a saaaMaioiaie r^aB- 
HUMi o6pa30Mi i^eHxpa^ibHyH) qacxb EBp, Poccia, Kor;ia-xo 6a- 
jiB cnaomauMH, a lenepb djiarojiapa pyfiK'fe yxpaxajia cnjooiHoa 
xapaKxepi a pasSaxu na paaaaqnoH Be-iaqaHH yiacxKH caiiuxx 
HeapaBaabHuxi OTCpTaaifi, OKpyaseaaHe KyabTypHHMa paBoaa- 
MH. BesA* rfli bi aaxt npeoCaaAaeii. fl;y6i, Basi., saeai, Jia- 
na a ^pyrie niapoEoaacTBeHafiie Ba^H ;^epeBbeB^, oaa Hocaxb 
TanaqBiifi jiicaofi xapaxxepi, ocoSeaBO xopomo BBipaaceaHuB aa 

4 



— 50 — 

ciBepi BT, cyrJiHHHCToa nojoci, vjs.^ qepHOJiicbe oSpasyeTi eme 
H no cie speas KpynnBie yiacTKH (eanp. wh KasaHCKoS vv6., 
BflTCKofi, HaateropojcKoS, TyjiBCKoS, BjianHMipcEofi h ;i;p.); na 
rorfe-jKe, TaMT>, r^it .iHCTBeHHue atca rpaHHiaTi co crenbio, ohh 
pacnajiaiOTCfl na MCiiKie ocrpona h noaocH (na xoJiMaxT., uo 
OBparaM^ h (jajiKaui), Ticeo rpaaHiamie ci, naxaTHHiiH iiojifl- 
5IH H CTenBHMH yHacTKaMH, H30()HJryF0TT. noJiaHawH h raapoKHMH 
oayniKaMH, sapocniHMH bi Hsofiajiu cTeuHHMH KycTapnaKaMH h 
TpanaMH (jiHKaa BHrnHs, (5o6obhhki, KOBUjib a up.); s^icb ecjiiii- 
CTBie nocToaHHaro conpaKOCHOBeaia co CTenbio a 6oph6u cb iieft 
y aax'i. cwmbics oco5h8 o6jibk%, Bapaooxajiacb ocofiaa CBoeof)- 
pa3Haa ^ayaa. TaKBin. oOpasoMi. sth mMHue cmenuue Atbca, 
odpasyiomie t. Has. Jiicocrenb iijia npejcxenie, HyasHO 0T;5'fejiaTb 

OTT, aaCTOaiUHXT, ciBCpHHXl JIHCTBeHHHXh JliCOBI., XOTH OHH H 

CBflsaHH ch HBMa ^epexoJ^aMB. ^a-ifie, H'fecKOJibKo o.cofiua xan'b 
npeicxaB.iiiioTi Gepesoeue atbca, bt, aiKOTopHxi MicTHOCTax"?- 
Hiffeioiuie npeoSja,iaiomee pasBaxie, aanpaM. hi SanaAHOtt Ca- 
fiapa, aa ypa^cfc a bi paaaHX'b M'fecTaxTt Eapon. Poccia. lacxo 
6epe30BMe I'feca coBwicxao c^ ocHaoR BOSHHKaioxx. aa Micxi e.io- 
BO-naxTOBaro jica bih cocaoBaro 6opa. f&ayaa 6epe30BHxi JiicoBb 
no.tyjiicHaa h nojycxenaaa, x. e. cjiijiOBaTCibHO CMiraaaaaa, 
npaxoMx 6^H3Kaa kl ({)ayat KycxapaaKOBx a onymeRX.. ^opiit, 
cneaia.iii.HO awh CBoficxBeaaHxi, Majo, a asx MypaBi>eB% noqxa 
n^n. HaEoaeai, aa sanaiit a loro-sana^t Espou. Poccia Jie- 
ataxi raapoKO-JiBCXBeBaHe Jiica sanajiao-eBponeflcKaro xapaKxe- 
pa c^ SyKOMx. a rpafioMx; axi 4'3'yHa, ex coafajiiniK) en;e Ma- 
jio ascjii^tOBaaaafl, aicKOJbKO ;i;oa3SBa oxjiaqaxtca otl (J)ayau 
Hamaxi ;i;y6oBHXi jicoBx njeaxpa h BOcroKa Esp. Poccia; oaa 
^ora^e ^lopMaMH a 6oji'6e 6jiB3Ka ki ^a,jni JitcoBx,, pasBaxHxi. 
BT. sanajiHofi Eapoai a y aacx aa KaBEast. 

Bi jtacxseBHuxx Jiicaxi Esp. Poccia Boofia^e KHByxx. cai- 
;i;yiomie MypaBba: 

Camp, herculeanns Polyergus rufescens 

— Ugniperdus DoUclioderus 4—punctatus 

— saxatilis Tapinoma erraticum 

— vagus Liometopum microcephalum 



— 51 — 
— marginatus (typ., ka- Tetramorium caespitum 



mensis, ruzskyi) 


Leptothorax tuberum (h v. nigri- 


— aethiops 


ceps) 


Lasius fuUginosus 


— kirillovi 


— flavus 


— unifasciatus 


— umbratus 


— nylanderi 


— mioctus 


— melnikovi 


— niger 


Temnothorax recedens 


Formica rufa 


Mychothorax acervorum 


— var. meridionalis 


— muscorura 


— pratensis 


M. muse. V. fagi 


— truncieola 


Myrmica laevinodis 


— exsecta 


— ruginodis 


— pressilabris v. rufoma 


— scabrinodis 


culata 


— rugulosa 


— fusca 


Forraicoxenus nitidulus 


— rufibarbis 


Stenamma tvestwoodi 


— sanguinea 


Ponera coaretata 


Salenopsis fugax (orientalis) 


Mgrmecina graminicola 



KypcHBOMT. oTMiqeHH xapaKiepHHs ^opMH. 

CpcAH nepeqacieHHuxT. (jiopiix npe^je Bcero HysaHO yna- 
saxb na Tasia, KOTopsia OTJiHHaiOTca BOoSme mapoKHMi pacnpo- 
CTpaHeHieM^ h BCxptiafOTca bo Bcixi jmcTBCBHHXi jiicaxi hc- 
saBHCHMo 01% HX^ reorpa4>HHecKaro noJioaieHia h 6iojiorBiecEa- 
ro xapaKiepa. TasoBU, HanpHM., Lasius fuUginosus, Form, ru- 
fa, fusca, Myrmica ruginodis, laevinodis, Las. flavus, Las. 
niger. 3aT'feM^ HeofixoAHMO BuiijiETb emfi ast rpyann ^Jopsii, 
mi, Koaxi oji.n'h cBoScTBeHBH no npeaMymecTBy chBepHHMx ;iy- 
SoBUMt JiicaM-b vh rjiHHHCTofl nojioci Eapon. PocciH, apyria 
npHHaaieataxi. .rtcaM-B roKHHMi, cieaHiaMi. Ki nepsHMt npa- 
HajJieataxi: Camp, marginatus. var. kamensis, Leptoth. melni- 
kovi, Mychoth. acervorum, Myrm. rugniodis, Form, exsecta. 
Bropaa rpynna 6oJiie MHoroqacaeeaa; Bi aeft ayaiHO npHHHcaaTB: 
Camp, vagus, Camp, marginatus var. ruzskyi, Liomet. micro- 
cephalum, BolichocH. 4 — pundatus, Leptoth. unifasciatus, Lept. 
nylanderi, Mychoth. muscorum var. fagi, Lasius umbratus, 
Myrmica srahrinodis. 4* 



52 



^^o6lI TOHHie o^pe;^'i3BTt pasja^ie b^ MHpaeitoJiora'jecKoS' 

(j)ayBi HaUlHXX cfeBepaUXl JIHCTBeHHHXT- ^liCOBl OTI H)2!BHX%, 

npHBe^ieui cdhcke MypaBbCBi, Hai!;ieHHiJXx bi t^xi-h ;jpyrHxi. 
TaKi b^ jHCTBeHHuxT. Jiicaxi KasaecKOfi ry6,, KOropue 
MoryTi cjiyatHTb thdomx HamaxT. ciBepauxi ji'6cob%, mbok) 
HaSjieHti cJiiiiyiomifl ^opitw. 



inarginatus var. ka- 



Camp 
niensis 

— herculeanus 
Formica rufa i. sp. 

— var. rufo-truncicola 

— fusca 

— sanguinea 

— exsecta 
Lasius fJavus 

— niger 



Lasius fuliginosus 
Tetianiorium caespitum 
Myrmica laevinodis 

— ruginodis 

— scabrinodis 

— lobicornis (aa oayuiKfe) 
Leptothorax meJnikovi 
Mychothorax acervoruni 
Formicoxenus nitidulus 



TanoMi loxHHx^ CTenauxt ji^cobi Moryii cayacHTb x. 
Ha3. Cafipayaue Jiica, KOTopae Mai npamjiocb esai'kji.OR&Tb st 
1905 r. aa lori CaparoBCKOi ryd.; 03^ aaxi caMHMb Kpyn- 
Baai sBjaeTca jaciBeaaiifi .lict oko;io Capeaiu, HSBtcTawfl 
nojii HMeHeMx ^MenypHnKB". Taan. a aaniejis cafe^iyipmHX'b 
MypaBbecT.: 



Cainponotus vagus 

— lateralis 

— marginatus var. ruzskii 

— aethiops 
Formica rufa 

— pratensis 

— sanguinea 

— fusca 

— rufibarbis 
Lasius alienus 

— niger 



— flavus 

— fuliginosus 
Myrmecocystus caspius 
Liometopum microcephaluni 
Tapinoma erraticum 
Dolichoderus 4-punctatus 
Tetramorium caespitum 
Strongylognathus chrislophi 
Mychothorax rauscorum v. fagi: 
Leptoth. unifasciatus 

— nylanderi 



_ 53 — 

— taberum i. sp. — scabrinodis 

TVIyrmica laevinodis — lobicornis 

Bi MejiKHXi-ate Jiicsax-B, ioTani,HXca no Ca.maM'B h sna- 
aunawi Ha cKJonaxt Epreaefi, (J)ayHa eme fiojite CTeuHoro xa- 
pasiepa; Taut h4ti hh Formica rufa, hh fusca. 

TaKHMX oSpasOMi MHpMeKOJiorHHecKaa 4>^yHa cieepHHX'B 
;i;yooBuxx jiicoBi. rjiHHHCTofi noaocu HaHfiojiift (itjina h o;!;ho- 
ofipasHa, HO 6oJi1ie THUHHua, ^4m^ (J)ayBa cTenaaxi. ji'Iicobi, 
oTJiaiawmHxca npuMicbio (|)opMi> KyciapHHEOBuxi h cTeuHuxi. 

.iHCTBeHBHeiaicaBi y(|)HMCEOfi, CaMapcKo8 w hi loatHOfl lacTH 
•C0M5npcKo8 ryd. 6oraqe ^lopMaua, qtax .lica KaaaHCKoS; ohh 
npaS.iHataiOTCfl 6oaie bx romBUMi JiicaMX. Bi hhxi. cbjibho 
BupaatcHi CTenBoii ajiOMeHT-B, EOTopuS paaBBTi npeHMyme- 
CTseaBO Ha nojasaxi h onymKaxx. TaM-h weatjiy npoiHMi Bcxpi- 
qasoTca: Camp. sa<ii:atiUs, Form, pressilabris var. rufomaculata, 
Lasius umbrafm, L. alienus, Dolichod. quadripunctatus, Form. 
■truncicola; o^eai. o6HKBOBeHBH Myrmica scahrinodis h Tetr. 
caespitum. Boji.inaa lacTL h31 nocjijTHHXi nepeqacJieHHHXi 
<][)()pMi co6cTBeHHO xaTaETepHH jissi KycTapHHKOBi oaymeKi, 
HJiH naz CTeuH, ToabEO Ddlichoderus quadripunctatus npHHaff- 
.neiKHTx Jitcy H rHtB^HTca scerAa bi sepest. 

OCOSCHBO XapaETepBHMH M& JBCTBeBBUXX JlicOBX HyatHO 

ciHiari. Camp, marginatus, Las. fuUginosus, Liometopum mic- 
rocephalum, Dolichod. 4-punctatus, acH3Bi> KOTopuxi> TbcBO caa- 
sasa ci> HtKOTopHMH BHiaaa AepesteBi, ocoSeHBO ci jty^OMt; 
OHH a^HByT^ bi. cHMSiosi h ct hhmi h ci tjismh, na HeMi. 
acBBymHMB. FHis^ia srnx-h MypaBbea^ Bcer;ta nonimatoxca Bt 
iEaBOMx jepeat. XapaExepaHMT. TaEme ;ijia iowhhxx aicoBrb as- 
jiaeTCa Form. rufa\&r. meridionalis, iiaflieHHufi b^ Bojibihceo^, 
XapbEOBCEoS, CapaTOBCKofi ry6. h B^ aanajiBofl CnfiapH. 

.lacTBeHHHe -itca sanajHoM h ioro-3ana;iHoft Esp. Poccia 
noBHAHMOMy He oxJiHiaiOTca no CBoefi ^ayai oxi .licoBi aanaj- 
Hofi Eflponu, npoiOJMteHie EOxopHxi. ona cocxaBJiaioxi. B% HHXt 
Meai^iy npoHHMi. Bcxpiqaexca xapaExepHuH ;tJia romaofl EsponH 
Temnothorax recedens, HafiAeanHfi xaKse h aa KaBsaai; saxiMt 



— 54 — 
— Mijrmecina graminkola h Ponera coardata, He HaBjieHBHfr 

HH Bl UeHXpaJLHOfi, BH BX BOCTO^HOfi Esp. PoCClH, HH B% Ch- 

fiapH. B'i HBX'B BecoMH'iHBO ofiwKHOBeHHH j&Ria (^opnu, 
KEKi Campomtus ligniperdus (typ.) h vagus, Koxoptifl Bectwa 
pacnpocTpaHeHH bx Eaponi, ho Ha boctok*, bi ChCbph, 
nocTeneHDo pijiiioT^ h HCiesaioT'B, BcipiqaacB Taiii KaK% 
(})opMu CKSoilKaqecBifl. Gamp, vagus aa BOCTOEt Esp. Poc- 
ciH yaie pfc;iKOBaTX h cnopa^tH^eai, na Ypaai h bi sa- 
najiHofi CuoiipH OTcyTCTByeTt h CHosa BCTpinaexcfl, nocJii 
gojinioro nepepwBa, b^ EHeceScKofi ry6. oeojo KancKa. To3te 
OTiacTH HviKHo CKasaTB H npo Camp, ligniperdus, KOTopHfi 
Bi ChShph TaKHje oqeBHjiHO HM'Sen jHinb HSOJHpoBaaHHe 
nyBKTH HaxoyuaeBia. BosMoaiRO, hto o5a 9th Mypasba jiBHraioTca 
na BOCTOKi., HO BCTpiiaFOTi. TaiiT. TasHXi onacHuxi conepHH- 
KOBi KaK'f. Camp, saxatilis h herculeanus. DepBHfi hsti hhxi, 
TiMeHHO C. saxatilis, THnHiBHfi OHOapcKiH matejih, SHepngHo 
;tBHraeTca Ha sanaji: ohx nepeuieji yace Ypaj^, saaaBuiH ero 
no^TH BecB, H ,iocTBrb tenepb jio BcirH. 

ITpo .nHCTBenHue jiira sanajiHofi h loro-aanajiHOfi EBp,. 
PocciH HVJKno Bno(5uie CKasaib, qxc obh Majio HsyieHu. JThiho a 
ex HHMH He 3HaK0M^. Ha ocHOsaHiH ;i;aHnHxi> npo$. H. B. H a c o- 
HOBa a 1?. A. KapaitaeBa UHpneKO-iorHiecRaa <][)ayHa hxt. 
coctohttj H3T. cjit;tyioiu,nx^ (fopMi: 



Campomtus vagus 


— truncicola 


— herculeanus 


Lasius fuliginosus 


— ligniperdus 


— niger 


— marginatum, 


— flavus 


Formica rufa 


— umbrattis 


— — var. meridionalis 


— mixtus 


— pratensis 


— brunneus 


— exsecta 


Tapinoma erroticum 


— pressilabris 


DolicJiod. quadripunctatus 


— fusca 


Myrmecina graminicola 


— rufibarbis 


Tctramoriura caespitum 


— sanguinea 


Myrmica laevinodis 



— 55 — 

— ruginodis Leptothorax nylanderi 

— rugiilosa (ruguloso- Temnothorax recedens 
scabrinodis) Ponera coarctata 

Solenopsis fugax Stenamma westwoodi 

Mychothorax acervorum 

CnHCOKx aTOTT> KOHC^HO HenojiHufi. HecoMH'fiHHO HafiiyTca 
Mjjchoth. muscorum var. fagi, HiKOToptia MapMBBa h MHorie 
HacToamie jeaTOTopaKCu, Liometop. microcephalum, Formico- 
xenus nitidulus, Lasius emarginatus b jLp. 

OxMiieHHua KypcHBOMi 4'opMu oco6eHHO xapaEiepHsyioT^ 
arn Ji'ica, npaOjEaaa axt saK^ a yaie roBopn-ii, ki. jiicaMi. 
sana^^HO eBpoaeScKHMt h KaBsascKHMx H'J^EOTopuM hs-b hbxb, 
KaE^ C. vagus, Dolich. quadripunctatus, C. marginatus Bcipt- 
qatoTca h bi. jitcaxx boctoihoS PoccIh, ho sooGme npcACTaB- 
aaioTi xaMt (iojiie pi^Koe as^eHie, ne oSpasya sautTearo 3;ie- 
MCHTa Bi HXi ({)aya'fe. 

KaKi a yme ynoMHHaji^, MHorie beau jihctbchhuxx ji^cobx 
;i8HraioTca kt. C, bi TaHry, BMicTi ct jiHCTBeHBUMH nopojiaMH 
H nocTenGHHO yKopenaiOTca xaMi; xaKOBU — Form, sanguinea, 
Formica exsecta, Lasius fuliginosvs, OTiacxH Camponotus va- 
gus, C. marginatus, Leptothorax tuberum h h^k. jip. 

ULnpoKOJiHCTBeHHae jitca KaoKaaa apespacHo coxpaHHJHCb, 
uJiaroAapa rjiasH. oopasoMi wajioaiojiuocTH ero b HeAOCTynaocTH 

MtCTHOCTH. MoiUHblM'b noaCOMT. OXBaXMBaiOTi OHH CK.10HH TOpi, 

HaHHHaacb noirn orx caMuxi hxi. no;tHoatifi, cnycsaioxca bij 
ymejita, oxiacxH aaHHuaiox'T. h jojihhh. Ohb oSpasyiOTi cpe;i- 
HioH) 30Hy xpeGxa h 000x02x1. vis-h ;iobojii>ho pasBooSpasHHXi 
.iHcxBeHHux^ nopoAx (Ji.y6'i, 6yKt, aceHb, rpafii, h jip-)) cpe;iH 
Koxopuxt MicxaniH npHMifflHBaioxca XBOilHua jiepeBBa. Uo 
Mipi uo^Haxifl BBepxi. ranpoKOJiHcxBeHHHe aica CMfeHaioxca 
iiocxeneHHo noacowt cochh h Sepeau. HyatHO aawfexaxb, mxo 
axH Jiica. Ha KaBsasi jaJieKo He Bes^t o;iHopo^HU no CBoeny 
oiojorHiecEOMy xapaExepy h npiypoqeHQ k^ p?3humi ofijacxan-b 
ero, xaKT) hxo npeacxaBMerca BOSMomHHMi pas^itiBxi. HXt aa 
HicEOJibKo $an,ifl, ho bx, HacToamifi MOMeHx-B axy sa^a^y eiii,e 



56 



w.ihSR ocymecTBHTb no HeAOCxaTO'ieocTH HscjiijioBaHiS. npe;i- 
ciOHTt eme mbofo pafiOTU jtJia Toro, qrofiu mokho 6ujio npa 
Hcno.iiieHiH aasBaHBOfi s&ji^smw H36'ferHyTb KpynHHXx oraHfioBi. 
Bi. oomeMi MHpMeKO(j|)ayHa inHpoKOJiHCTBeHHtixi jchcoBi. 
KaBKasa ropasao Soraie npe;iCTaBHTejaMH qiiix (|)ayHa JiHCXBea- 
Htixi. jicoBi He To-ibKO EBp. Poccia n CHOHpa, no no BceS 
BtpoareocTH TaKace h TypKecTaaa. HacKo.ii.KO 3to Teneps BUiic- 
SH.70C1,, oea coctoht'i. h31> cjiijiyioiUHXi (|)opMi: 



Cainponotus aethiops 

— silvaticus 

— herculeanus 

— ligniperdus 

— vagus 

— inarginatus 

— ruzskii 
C'olobopsis truncata 

Prenolepis nilens 
Lasius fuliginosus 

— flavus 

— umbratus 

— mixtus 

— niger 

— emarginatus 

— brunneus 

— var. pallidas 
Formica rufa 

— truncicola 

— exsecta (h v. rubens) 

— fusca 

— sanguinea 

— rufibarbis 
Polyergus rufescens 
Sok'nopsis fugax 

— orientalis 



Tetrainoriuni caespitum 
Strongylognatus testaceus 
Myrmecina graminicola 
Formicoxenus nitidulus 
Leptothorax corticalis 

— cxilis 

— affinis 

— unifasciatus 

— anoplogymis 

— nylanderi (a v. par- 
vulus) 

— serviculus v. brauneri 

— nigritus 
Temnothorax recedens 
Mychothorax acervorum 

— mnscorum (v. fagi) 
Myrmica laevinodis 

— ruginodis 

— scabrinodis 

— rugulosa 
Stenamma westwoodi (ii v. 

hirtula) 
Dolichod. quadripunctatus 
Tapinoma erraticum 
Liometop. inicrocephalum 
Cremastog. scutellaris 



— 57 — 

Crem. scutel. v. schmidti — gibbosa v. muschtai- 

Aphaenog. subterranea dica 

— var. kurdica Ponera coarctata 

'Sxhch, aa HCMBorHMH HCBJuoMeaiflMH, npeACTaBJieHa bi 
ocHOBHHXi qepiax^ homth bca Jiicflaa najieapRXHiecKaa q^ayHa, 
ci aaM-feTHHMi oAsaKo npeoSjaaaHieMi eBponefiCKHXx (J)opM^. 
HejocraeTx To^iifca H'tKOTopuxi lOJKHoeBponefiCBHX^ {Leptoth. 
melanocephalus Em., Camp, universitatis For.. Camp, foreli 
Em. H jtp.), HTaKJRe HiCKoabKaxi, HafiaeHHHxi noKa vh cpei- 
HeB EBpoat, KaKOBH JienTOTopaKCH {Leptoth. clypeatus Mayr, 
tirolensis Gredl.. interruptus Schenck). Cneaiajii>HHx% ate 
^opMT, cpaBHHTeJibHO iA&M. Ho B'fejiL 4>ayHa KaBKasa h Heuo- 
sieri. noKa noiHTaTLca BnoaH-fe HBCJitiOBaHHofl. OxHOCHTejibHo 

HiKOTOpHX^ H31. npHBejteilHHXl Bl CHHCKi $OpMX HySKHO 3a- 

MtxnTb, HTO OH0 ptjKH Bi. jiBCTBCHHEixi. atcaxt KaBKasa H 
ee xapaKTepHH wa hhx^. TaKOBH, HanpHM., Form, rufa, ex- 
secta. Camp, ligniperdus, Temnoth. recedens. 

$opMaMH HaH^oji'fee ofiHEHOBeHHHMH, pacnpocxpaHeHHHMH 
uinpoKO B-B JiBCTBeHBHXi JiicaxB KaBKasa, asjiaioTCfl mhpmhkh, 
H-feROTopue JienxoTopaKcu (nanp. Lept. uw'fasciatus, nylanderi, 
MycJioth ucervorjim, Tetr. caespitum, Las. fuliginosus, Las. 
niger, emarginatus, flavus, Form. rvfiharUs, F. fusca, Ta- 
pinoma erraticum h up.), ho caeEiiajBHyK) oKpacsy JitcHoS 
(()ayHt npHjiaioTX ae oh*, a xaKie bx CojibmnHCXBt cJiyiaeBi 
jiOBOJibHO p'£«Kie noKa aa KaBKaat MypasbB Kasx Stenamma 
wedwoodi var. hirtula, Mych. mucorum v. fagi, Prenolepis 
nitens, Coloh. truncata, h cpaBHHxeJibHO 6oa4e ^acxHe, KaKi 
DoUchod. quadripnnctatus (n v. unicolor), Cremast. scutel- 
laris V. schmidti, Aphaenog. subterranea h v. kurdica, 
Aph. gibbosa, b v. muschtaidica, Camp, aefhiops, C. vagus, 
Ponera coarctata, Myrmecina graminicola. B% npoxaBono- 
jioHvHOcxb Espon. Poccia bx. jtacxBeHHHXi jiicaxi KasKaaa 
coBciMx. He Hafl;teH'b Form, truncicola h oienb pt^iOKi 
Form, rufa i. sp., cnoflcxBeaHbifi SopaMXi rjaBouMi 06- 
pasoMX SaKaBKasba. Formica pratensis xaEKe dojtte xapaK- 



58 



TcpeHi AJia 6opoBi KasKasa, xota nona^aeTca TaEate b-b cM-fe- 
uiaHHHx^ jTfecaxi Ha rjiaBHOMi xpefiri, h bl JiHCTBeaeuxt 
,J,arecTaHa. 

HyacHO jaite saM-ferHTb, ^to jiacTBeHHue Ji'Soa ctBepaaro 
cK.ioHa rjiaBBai'o xpefixa OTJiBHaioTCfl no CBoe8 MHpMeKo4)ayHt 
oil j'ScoBT. waiHaro cKJioea h SaKaBKasba. Bt, nepsHXt ne 
BCxpiieHbi Temnoth. recedens, Cremastog. scutellaris v. 
achmidti, Liometop. microcephalum, Camp, marginatus russkii, 
Colob. truncata, Apliaenog. gibbosa h Apli. subterranea var. 
kurdica, KOTopue nuiiOTCfl bo liiopux^, npHnewi TaMT> oieat 
oCbiKHOaeaeHi Crem. scutellaris v. schmidti, a Colob. truncata 
H 1\ recedens pi;iKH. 

Jica /l^arecTaHa TaEse HsiiioTi cboH ocoSuH oCjihki-, ohh 
otjiHte (J)opMaMH MypaBbCBb b^ cpaBHeHia ci jipyraMH .liraiuH 
KaiiKasa. Ohh HMtrori, xapaKrepi. CBiuHxi) JitcoBx c^ Go- 
raruMi TpaBaHHCTtiMx noEpoBOMi h npafijiaaiaroTca k% ]o;k- 
HUM^ jiicaMi Espon. Poccia. Taiii, cpaBUHxejibHO ooukmo- 
BCHHu: siypaBefl aMaaoHKa [Polyergus rufescens), avHBymiS 
CB CBOHMi HaaOoJi'Iie o6uhhhmx pa5oMi Form, rufibarbis m 
'senjianu's.'h iiopocraHxt piaKOii TpaBOft xojiiHKaxT) aa licHuxi 
-lyraxi, Tetram. caespitum h ero Haxj'fcoHHK'b Strongylogn. 
tedaceus, Lasiiis bicornis affinis, Form, sanguinea, Las. ali- 
enus H alieno-niger, coaeHoacaci,, npiypoiHBamuuficfl ofiUKHo- 
BOHHO Ki. lyJKHMb ratsAaMi MypaBf.eBi), Myrmica rugulosa. 

HaKOHen,'t, uyatno Bujii-jHTb jiacTBeHHHe Jiica ctBcpo 3ana;i- 
Hai'o KaBKasa, 060 To;ibKO xaMt aoKa HaflAeHta Frenolepis nitens, 
II Strong, christophi var. rehbinderi; Kpowt loro xanx cpaBna- 
Te.ibHo o6HKHOBeHHH Colob. truncata, Formica cinerea var. 
imitans, Campon. lateralis (bicolor), Las. brunneus {hrunneo- 
emarginatus), n Becbiia qacx'b Camponotus vagus. Jica iiptM- 
KaBKasba (okojio HflXHropcKa, KacjiOBOACKa a jip.), homtI) na 
ceot jjne cajibHO BupajKeHHHii crenaofl xapaKxepx. 9xh .rtica 
MoiKHO xopouio HaSjiWAaxb Ha rop-b MainyK'fc; xani cpeiiH ptji,- 
K0XI ApeBecHux-b HacaaiiieHia a Goraxot xpaBaaacroa pacra- 
TcibHocxH ofibiKHOBeHHu xaKie BHjiu KaEi Fheidole palUdula, 
Flagiolepis pygmaea, Form, rufibarbis, Camp, aethiops, Tet- 



— 59 — 

ram. caespitum h var. splendens, Tapinoma erraticum, Las. 
alienus, Leptoth. nylanderi, h31 kohxx Plieidole paUidula h 
Flag, pygmaea xapaKiepHH ^Jia KaaeHHCTHXi npeAropifi, no- 
pocniHxi KvcTapHHKOMi H cxenHOH) pacTHTejibHocTbH), j^arecTaaa 
H 3aKaBBa3ba. Jlica-ate Kojixh;iu, HanpoTBBi, coxpaHawTi ats- 

CTBCHHElB, r.l[ydOKO aiCHOfi THEX; B-h HHXT. TaRie HCTHHHO J'fec- 

HHe atHTc^H KaKi Cremastog. scutellaris, Colob. truncata, Ste- 
namma mestwoodi, Camponotus marginatus, Leptoth. corticalis, 
L. nylanderi, Myrmecina graminicola, Dolichoderus 4-punc- 
tatus H b4k. ;ip. ^ojiasHH hm^tb cboS HacToaiuifi iteHTpi, ot- 
Kv^a OHH pacnpocxpaHHJiHCi. no KaBEaay. TaMx-ace uewsy npo- 
HViHT, Hafi;(eH^ Leptoth. serviculus var. brauneri. Jltf-a bth 
HM^ioTi TicHoe OTHoraeaie bt. aicaMi. noiJepeiRBfl lepaaro Mopa 
Ha c4Bepo-3ana;tHOM% KaBSast. Ei comajfimm h T'fe h jipyrie 
B^ MapMeKOJiorHMecKOMt. OTHomeniH oieHb Maao H3CJl•6;^0BaHIJ. 
Eepeaoeue Atbca no cocrasy caoei MBpMeKo4)ayHH OT-^aqa 

K)TCa 0TT> CifeeepaHXl aHCTBeSHMXl .TfeCOB^ CBOHMt CMimaHHUMTi 

HacejteHieMi, hmchho HaxojK^ieHieMx MHoraxi ctenHEaxi <|>opM%, 
KOTopua TaM% aBJiawTca nojiHoapaBBHiiH rpaffi;iaHaMB, npHcyx- 

CTBya HOCTOaHHO HapaBB'fe Cl THnHieCKH JliCHHMH (JJOpjiaMH. 

Cnen,iaafcHO tojilro hmi cBoficxBeHHHXb t|)opMX hbx MypaBbeBs 
OBR noBH^iHMOMy HS HwiioTi. OcoficHHO pasBBTu 6epe30BMe Jiica 
B^ CaSapH, rrfe oaa saaaMaiOTi oSmapaHa apocTpaacTBa a o6pa- 
37I0TI BaojH'h caMOCToaTe;ii>Hyio substatio, t§cho rpaaaia co 
cteatK). BoT'B no^eMy ea;e MH;i;AeHAop$i aasHBa-n. npocxpaa- 
CTBa, saaaxHa bmb bi 3anaiiHoa CafiBpa, „6epe30BOK) cxeabBo" '). 
SaxiM^ oaa pacxyxi aa Ypaji'fi, ocoOeaao aa BOCTO?aHxi> ero 
CK-ioaax-b a bi jitcocTenaHxi paiioaaxt flepMCsofi a y^aiicKoii 
rydepaifi, Jiaate bx FySepjiBHCKBxi ropaxi, a aa caiiOMi EpaB- 
HCMT. Kiri ffocxBraioxi. Myrofljaapx. Bx Eapon. Poccia depeso- 
Bue Jitca ae aaaaMaioTx. raKaxi 6ojibHiaxi npocTpaacTBi, KaKi 
Bx CaSapB, BO Bce-aie eecbMa oduEHOBeaaH, acxpfeiaacb qaa^e 
Be(5oJbmBMa yqacxKasiB, poo^aMH h.ib sootKaMB aa pasjiaqauxi 



') M 11 a » e H fl. p (]^ x, A.. 9. B a p a 6 a, 1871 r., CTp. 16 h 17. 



— 60 — 

noiBaxi, ;iaate na KaMeHHCTHxt h necqaHHXx. Eji.Ba. m xenepi. 
oepesoBue .tica na paBHHHi HM-feiOT^ caMocToaxevifcHHS, nepso- 
^tiTnHB xapaKtepi; ohh oCtiKHOBeHHO BOSHHEaroxi. na m^^ct^ 
;ipyrHXi. itcoBi, ocoSchho cochobuxi. 6opoBi, a uomevh-Can 
;ia3!e n npsMo Ha crenH, 9ro OTpajsaetcfl a aa xapaExep'fe uxi 

i|»aTBB!. 

MHpMeKO^)ayea depeaoBUXt jiicoBi co;iepffiHT'B 3% ce6^ 
BHiH ji'icHue H crenHHe, npaqcMi nepBue BceraKa npeo5jiaiaK)x%, 
3ro oco6eHHO ascxByexi h3x cj'h^tyioinaro cnacKa MypasbeBi, 
HaS.iiojaBraHxca mhoH bx depeaoBHXi uapKaxi 'SAaa^aoH Ch6hph 
u Ba BocxoqeoMx. CK-ioai lOJKHaro Ypajia: 

Caniponotus saxatilis L. flavus 

C. herculeanus *L. umbratus 

Formica rufa L. mixtus 

^F. truncicola (om. ptjOKx) '} L. fuliginosus 
*F, pratensis Myrmica laevinodis 

*F. pressilabris M. ruginodis 

F. exsecta M. kasczenkoi 

*F. uralensis *M. scabrinodis 

F. singuinea *M. lobicornis 
'^F. rufibarbis Tetramorium caespitum 

F. fusca Mychothorax acervorum 

*F. gagatcs M. muscorum 

Lasius niger Formicoxenus nitidulus 

*L. alienus Leptothorax tuberura v. nig- 

L. alieno-niger riceps 

3ltCb CpeAH 6o;iLfflHBCIBa JliCHUXl (|)OpMl MU BH^HMi 
H3B'6cXHIJa npOmCHXX HHCXO CXCnHUXl MypaBBCBX (oXMiqCHHUX't 

SBtsjioqKOfl), B3X KOHXi 6oJihma.& 'lacxB oSuKaoBeHHO ;!iepatHTCfl 
He B-h caMBXt j'ficax^ HCnocpejtciBeHHO, a na OKpaHHaxi h 



') Dpo Form, truncicola HyjKHO saMtTHTb, ito oui bi ^hcthxi Oepe- 
SDBHX'L Jitcaxx sanaAHoft Ca6tipii bihoio ue 6hjii^ uaiiAeHi; a BCTp:^^^^ ero 
BT. cMimaHHOMi jHCxseHHoui Jiicy Ha ocipoBt osepa TaaojixaHa bt. HmHM- 
CKOMT. oKpyri. 



61 



^yxafiKaxT., KOiopuxi. TaMx Bce^;^a duBaeii MHoro, KaKOBu: 
Form, pratensis, vralensis, gagates, pressilabris, Myrm. lohi- 
cornis; ho HwiiOTCa h TaKie, KOTopue npoHHsaiOTi hi caMyio 
rjiyfib .ifeca h aKHByTt TaMi 6oK^ o 6ok'b cx hhcto jiifecHUMH 
(JjopjiaMH, Hanp. Myrm. scabrinodis, Lasius umbratus, Las. 
alienus, Form, rufibarbis, a axo aBjeaie BectMa xapaExepaa 
y.}iB SepesoBHXx jitcoBi. HHiepecHO yaasaib xaKse Ha oSuq- 
Hoe npedHBaaie b% fiepeaOBuxt Jiicax^: 1) lepnaro sojiothcto- 
BOJiocaro KawnoHOTyca {Camp, saxatilis), asjimomarocfl hocto- 
jiBKy-^e jtcHUMi, noCKoatKy h ropHOCTeaHHMi atHxejeMi; bo 
2) Leptothor. tuberum var. nigriceps Mayr, nepBOHaHa.ibHufl 
xapaKTepx jitcxoofiHTaHia KOToparo noKa eai,e Tpy;^Ho ycxaao- 
BHXb; BtpoaxHtfi Bcero, ixo 3to (J)opMa EycxapHBKOBofi cxenu 
h;ih cocHOBaro 6opa. BcexaKH npeo6jia;i;aiomifl ajieMCHXx MHpiae- 
KOJioraiecKaro HacejieHia CepeaosHx^ napKOBi Ch6bph :i'6cHofl, 
cpeiH Koxoparo OHeai. oSuEHOBeHBH ciBepHue xaeateHe bhih^ 
KaBx. Camp, herculeanns, Mychoth. acervorum a Myrmica ru- 
ginodis,—oco6enocTh, OT.!iHiaK)in,aa 9xh aica on, loatHHXt jih- 
CTBeHHuxx. ji'icoBx, r;ii HaseaaHHe MypasbH hjh oxcyxcTayioxi, 
HJiu oieHB piiKH. PasiHHie axo Bucxynaext eme ptsie, ec.in 
Mu ()yjieM^ cpaBHHBaxB t6 h ;ipyrie ne xo.TbEo bi oxaoffleaiH 
jiypaBieex, ho h bi oxHomeHia apyraxf. ape^icxasHxejiefi ^a,ynu, 
aanpHM. nxani'B. 

Bt SepesoBuxx pomax^ CHMCapcEoft ryd., pasBHXHxi cpe- 
jiH EOBUJiBHoS cxena Ha M'Sjiy no npasoMy BucoBOMy 6epery 
Boara, a Hamejix. MapMeKo^ayay Meaie ofiajibHyro, cocxoaBoiyia 
xojiBKo H3X. cjii^yrotaaxx MypasbeBx: 

Gamponotus marginatus F. sanguinea 

Lasius flavus F. exsecta 

L. niger F. pressilabris 

L. alienus F. pratensis 

L. umbratus Myrmica scabrinodis 

Formica fusca Myr. lobicornis 

F. rufibarbis Tetramorium caespitum 



F. rufib. V. subpilosa 



— 62 — 

3ji4cb cienaufl (|)OpMH yate coBepmeHHO npeoSjtaAajB Hait 
aicHUMH a B% aioMT. OTHOoieaiH GepesoBBie Jiica BuiwTh 60.113- 

moe CXOJCTBO ex CyXHlia COCHOBUMH HJB JHCTBeHHHIHHMH 60- 

paMH. 

CM-JioiaHHufi cociaB^ 6epo30Bo8 $ayHH oSiacHaeTCH kekt. ca- 

MBMb XapaKTepOMX 9THXI .licOBX, xaKT. E HXT. npOHCXOffilCHieM'h 

OrJiHqHTejhHoS ocofjeHHOCTtio nepsaro flBJiaeTca HecnocofiHOCTB 
Cepesu no;iaB;iaTB jipyrie ajieuenru OKpyaaiomeiJ es npapo.iu. 
OTiero 9T0 sjieMeHTW paciHTOJiLHOCTH H 4*ayHH MoryTi> jierKO 
v/KHBaTBCfl c^ HcM '). Bi fiepesoBHx-b ;iicaxi mh Bcer^ia Hafijio- 
;iaeMi rycToft iiOKpoBi xpaBAHBCToS pacTHTCJibHOCTH, He 3ar.iy- 
uiaeiiofi He cxtcHaeMoH OepeaoS. ripOHCXojinTT. Meac;iy npoiajii. 
axo oTToro, mo ;iepeBba bi. fiepesoBuxi Jiicaxi He ofipasyiOTi. 
qacTuxx, cnjomHUXi. HacaatWHifl, a paciyxi pi^KO, pasfipocanHO 
11J10 rpynnaiiH, qepe^yiict C7. oxEpHTUsra ;iyroBHHaM0 h no.w- 
HaMH; iiajiie b% Hnx'p. hIjtt, bobcb 3Ha<mxejiBHoa KyciapHHKOBofi 
nopoc.iH H 3ax43ii) caviuS xapaKxepi jhctbu SepesoBux^ ne- 
pf'BieBi xaKOBx, Hio OHa He wexx SHaqHxejibHoa xiHH. Kpoiife 
6epe3H, Koxopaa KOHe^HO Bcer;ia npeo6jia;iaext, bi SepesoBEixT. 
.rhca.x'b em.e Bcxpiiaexca ocBHa, HBa, 03p4;iKa zmb% hjb Basi, 
MepsMxa, KpyniBHa, 6oapEjniHHKT,, KycxH niBnoBHBKa, ahkoS 
BHUina, MajiHHu. Hepi^jEH cpcAH hhx% MOKpaa, gojoxBCTHa 
HH30HU, Koxopufl (Jepesa ^lacio sapocxaexi h Eoxopua TaKi:> 
.iio^JiTX Myrmica rugit:odis h laevinodis, a xaKSEce h cojOHqaKH 
(oco6eHHO B^ CbOhph) Ha uojianaxi. Cpem fiepesOBHx^ xJcobx 
Mu Bcxpi^aein. Maccy cxennHxi pacxeaifi, a BMicx4 ci hbmh 
H crenHHX'j. aKHBOXHuxi, cpej!.B aoxopuxx BMiioxca ne xojbko 
BBABi oSmecxenHue, ho h bb^bi, CBoaciBeHHHe HepaoseMHoa a 
KaMeHHCxofi cxena (aaap. Formica gagates), ho sa BciMx xiiii., 
KaE^ a yate ynoMHHaJi, h aicaofi aaeMeaxi BHpaateai. pisEO 
ji npeo5j[a;iaeix. BapoHeux 3;jicB Brpaexi sHawHie h rcorpa- 
({)0qecEoe nojoateaie: aiieHHO bx Cepesoanxi jicaxi. dojite 



') Bi AyOoBHxi Jitcaxi npoHcxoiiHTi coBepineHHo oCpaiHoe: ohh, Ha- 
iipoTHBi, noaaBjiawTi cTenHyio npapoAT. no^eMy bx hhxi cienHHa pacreiiia 
H acBBOTHHa MoryTi cejaitca loaiKo Ha onyniKaxi k nojiaHaxx, cboOoahhx* 
0T3 HacaafleHift AY^a. 



— 63 — 

cfeBepBHxt MiexHocTefi j^cHofi dJieaenr'h acHO npeo^Jiajjaei-B h 
roctioscTByex^, acTenHOtt noJ^aBJeH^, Tor^sa BaBS bi depeaoBuxi. 
jitcax^, pacTymaxi Ha rori, BaKi pasi HaoOopoxi. TaKt ito 
HecoMHiHHo, HTO jBa yEasaHHHe ajeMeara, Ji*CHOfi h CTenHoH, 
B F, 6epe30Buxi Jifecaxi. OopflTcn Meac;iy cof5oi! h B^HMaii BceTaBH 
3jicb Hrpaeii. fiojibmyio pojB. Ho cyutecTBVjoTi ^OP"", Koropna 
conpoBO/KAaroTi oepesoBiae Jitca BCK);i;y HesaBHCHMO ot-b EJiHMaia 
HJie xapaETepa hxi TpaBaHacTaro noEpoBa; xaBOBH xeMHoSypuS 
a }Ke;ixu8 Jiasiyca, Formica rufibarhis, Formica exsecta. Oh* 
Bcxpftiaioxcfl Bi 3XHXX. jiicaxx> Kas^ na cfesepfe, xaBi a Ha fcrh, 
paBHo KaKT) H Bx ropaxB, bx. ax^ sepxaeMB noaci, aa bhcox"}!, 
J5.0 KHKoft xoibEO MOHiexi. 6epe3a jtocxarayxb xaMt. OqeBaieo, 
Meauy hhmb h fiepesoa ecxb ixoxo poACXBeaaoe. KpacHHfi 
ToHKoroJOBjaa Mvpaeea (Form, exsecta), Ka»eica, bt> ocofiea- 
Hocxa HaxojiHXT. BecbMa nojrxo^flcnia ycJiOBia atasaa rxh ce6a 
cpeftB 6epe30BHXx> aicOBX.; axt CBtxJHB bb^x-, inapoKifl npo- 
cxopx., Macca Bos^yxa a CBixa, oSajibaaa xpaBaaacxaa nopocjib 
— Bce 8X0 qepesBuiafiHO apaaaxca eny, Jirofiamejiy ;i;ajieEO pacKa- 
;iuBaxb CBOH KOJiOHiH; 9xo odHiHufl cnyTHHKi 6epe3H, mokgxx- 
^uxb laaie Eopeaaofi aiHxejb 6epe30BBixx> JitcoBX.. 

KpoMi xoro CM-hniaHBoe aacejieHie 6epe30BHXx> jitcoB'b 
oSxiJiCHaexcfl en;e a x^mx, ixo 8xa xas^ oSajibHO pacKaayxua 
CepesoBHa poma aa paBHaaaxx. EBpon. Poccia a CaSapa bxo- 
patmaro ripoHCXoat;ieeia, ^xo oai BOSHasaa bt, fioJibmaecxBt 
ciyqaeBi aa M'fecxt fiuBmaxx. coeHOBbixx> (5opOB'b. 3x0 nocj'fejiaie 
BT) npeataia apeMeaa, o^eBH^tao, aM-fcaa bi Poccia orpoMaoe 
pacnpocxpaaeaie, ao 6ucxpo ac^esjia nojtx BjiaaieMi py6oKXi a 
oco6eHHO noaiapoBi, EoxopHMx. ohh xasx. lacxo nojBepaseau a 
oxx. Koxopuxi HBKaEofi ^pyro8 Jiicx. ae CTpaAaexx ai xaEoa 
cxeneaa Basi oaa. Bu3o6BOB;iaiOTca-ase cucHOBue 6opa spaSae 
c.ia6o, Me;iJeHH0, bjib js,&sie Bosce He B03o6HOBJiaioTca. Ha Micxi 
sxT, ofiHEHOBeaHO nocejiaiOTca flpyria aicHua nopojiH AepeBbenx, 
r.taBHKiMX'aie o6pa30Mx> Sepesa ^). Ho xowa saEi Gojibmaa lacxb 



') IIpo4). i. £. r p ji; a r H H 1, Hay^HBi (SepesoRHe aica vh SanasHvit 
•ChShph, npHinea'K EiTOHy saEJUD^eHiB), ?io oua Taui npescTaBJumi'B Biopa- 



_ 64 - 

jipyraxi ;ipeBecFiuxi nopo;i;^, HanpHaipx, nj6'h h jip., coeep- 
lucHHo uojiABiLiimTTy jiase yenqiOKaiOTX Soposyio (^ayay, 6e- 
pesoBue jica ^aiorx MHorHMx en iipe^craBHTeJaMT. npiioTT. h bo3- 
MoacHocTs npciciacaTb cBoe cymecTBOBaaie. TaKHMt oGpasoMi npe- 
ofi-iaiaiomifl 9.3eMeBTi. Hacejiia SepeaoBtixi jicos^ ii cocTOHT^ HSi 
upeaije ouBinaxT. npe^craBHTejea 6opoBoii $ayHu, ^to Bno.iBt. 
acHO BUTeKaen> 031 conocTaB^renia chhckobi (|)0pMi. 6cpe30Bux7» 
.itcoBi H cocHOBuxT. oopoBX. Ho He uyacHO iiywaTb, 1T0 SepesoBwc 
aica B03HHKaion> tojbko nocii dopoBi; ohii BHpocTaK)Ti> a xopo 
mo pasBHsaioTca TaKsce Ha nifecrfe ejoBo-naxTOBoS Taflra h nocTb 
py6KH ranpoKOJiHCTBeHBHXi jicoBi; Torjia ohh yate 3anMCTByiOT/> 
qacTs CBoeS (j)ayHU a vis-b axaxt noc.i'i;iHHXi; laKx nanpHsi. 
Campon. marginatus bt> fiepesosaxx jicax'b ecTt HecoMainna 
Buxo^iCA^ jHCTBeHHaro (,iy6oBaro) j'tca. HaKOHeii;'b ae jhuichji 

BtpoaTifl H B03M0atH0CTb BO3H0KHOBeHia HJH CaMOCTOaTCSbHaro 

noce.aeHia SepeaoBHXi. pom'b Ha ciena h tova& KOHcqao laKie na0- 
oo.'iie CTO^Kie ea ajeiweHTU, KaKi Form, rufibarbis, F. pra- 
tcnsis, Las. alienus, Myrmica lobicornis jjOJiatHH y^iepatarbca 
B^ fiepesoBuxi Jticaxi.. Jl,pyria-a;e cxenHbia (j[)OpMbi, OAHaico, noHeiry 
TO He yJKHBaiOTca bi OepesoBux^ ;i4caxi; Tyji;a npoBHKaiOTi. 

HJH •VdMI. OCTaiOTCfl TOAbKO npeHMyiHeCTBeHHO THKia, KOTOpUJi 

CBoScTBCHebi .lyroBUMi crenaMi n BOoSme luapoKO pacnpocipa 
HcHu; ^opMu-aie THuaqHoH KOBuabHoK hjh KaiueuHCTOfi crena. 
n.in KycTapHaKOBOfi, KOxopHa HsSbraiOTi rycToro, cnJOuiHoro 
TpaBaHHCTaro noKposa, bi, 6epe30Bbix'i. jv^chxt, He nocejaioTca 
(nanpHM. Leptotliorax nassonovi, Leptoth. serviculus, Myrmo- 
xenus (jordiagini, Myrmecocystus cnspius, Messor structor a ;ip.). 
BnoJini caMOCToaTejibHyK), nepBHiao paciymyio accom'an;iio 
fiepesoBue atca o6pa3yiOTX> B'b aepxaeMi noaci rop^, aa rpaaanlj- 
jl.cHoii pacTHxe-ibHOCTH; ao xajax oaa ox-iiHiaroxca nopaaaieiibao- 



quYio (popjiy pacTiiTeJitHOCTH, KOTopaa pasBHJiacB hs^cochobhxi Copont noxt 
BJiiaHieMt se;iOBiKa, yHHiTO/Kaomaro (5opH. Ho bo3MO)bho, do ero MHiniio. u 
iiepBHiHoe cymecrBoBaHie 6epP3H Tan's, ho tojiiko bx iisBiciuuxi Mtcraxi. 
H iia onpeiitJieHHHX'B uoisaxi. (Cm. A. ropjtariiH%, MarepiajiH nna 1103- 
Haiiia noqBi h paCTHTeaBuocTU 3ana;iHo4 CmChph. Tp. KasaneK. 0(5m;. Ect , t.. 
XXXIY, BHH. 3. 1901 r.). 



— 65 — 

CiXHoi ^syBoS BooCJ^e e UBpueKo^ayHoB bi ^rcthocth. TaEi, 
Ha KaBBast, na rjaBHOMi xpe6T* h b% JI,arecTaH4, a aauie.i^ 
B% BHCOKopaCTymHxt, rpaHHqHBraHxt yse ci ajuniScKHMH Jty- 
rawB, (iepeaoBHxi Jiicaxi tojeko Formica, fusca, F. rufibarbis, 
Myrm. ruginodis, Form, exseda, F. pressilabris, Mychoth. 
acervorum, Lasius flavus h niger, npH^CMX Form, pressilabris 
mnA'b He Bi ca,iiax% jitcaxi, a ao axi OKpasHaM'&. 

CocHOBbie 6opbi 

CocHoeue Oopu npe;icTaBJifliOTi Becbua cBoeodpasHufl tbqi, 
ptSKO OTJiHiawmiBcji KaKi oti eiOBonHXTOBoit TaBra, raKx h 
oil mapoKo - JiHCTBeHHHXi JiicoBi. HecMOTpa na CHJBHoe hxi 
nop'ijiiBie sa nocatjiHee Bpesfa, ohh Bce eme bt. PocciH w- 
BOJbHO fflHpoKo pacnpocTpaHeHH, Bi ocoScHHOCTH Ha cfeaept H 
Ba> rteHTp-h, h b% o^mcMi noKpHBaror* 3HaqBfTeJtf.Hyio njomaiB, 
xora (5oJiiinHX%, cnJioraHHXi. HacaatjieHifi h hc oCpasyioTt. B% 
no-^oct TafirB cocHOBtie 6opH nepeMiinaHH c^ejOBo-nHXTOBHsm 
jtcaMii, a loJKH'fee ea oSpasyiOTi. spynHHe yqacTKH Ha necqa- 
HHxi noiBaxi. TaEOBH 6opa vh KasaHcaofl ry<J., Haateropoj- 
CKoS, CaMapcKOfl, CaMOapcBofi, UeHseHCKofi, CapaToeCKoB, Pa- 
saacKoB, BoponeatCKoB, KaJiyaiCKofi, OpjOBCKoB, bx roro-sanas- 
Hofi Poccia a up. HaKoneni, cocaa eme pacTeTi na CEajiaxx 
H yrecaxi (YpajiT, HteryJia, Cb. FopH bx XapbKOBca. ry6., 
<&HajaH;jia). 

•fayaa Hamaxi cochobuxt. fiopoBi. qpesBmafiHO opara- 
HajBHa a BHTepecaa, ho bi coaiajiiHiK) Mcaxh nopx He 6uja 
Epe^MCTOMi nerajibHHXT. a3CJ'i;50BaHiB aoojioroBi. M. H. Bo r- 
aaHOBi '), EaatcTca, (Jujii ojhbmi hsi nepBHXi>, ofipaxHB- 
maxi aa aee cepbesaoe BHaHaaie. Ohi aayqajix Oopa Qoso^xba 
a ^^ajcB HaMX cqbcob'b SBipefl n aTBi];T>, ^aByqax'B bi hhxi. 
Ho OHX He oTTioHJit xapaBxepHofi ocofieHHOCTH 6opOBo8 (j^ayahi, 
paBHo Baai b He c;(tjiajii nonnxBa npoaHajiHsapoBaTB ee, bu- 



■) OXEaH M SB'bpH YepHOSe)IH«ft HOaOCH flOBOJiaCU a AOJBBH cpeAUe^ ii 

UHxuefl BojirH. Tp. HasaHCK. Oum. £ct., t. 1. 1871 r. 

5 



— 66 — 

acHHTB npoHcxoKxeHie cjaraiomaxx ee (j^opiiii. Paafiapaa rp?n- 
nnpoBKy nTHn;Ti h SB^peS Boo(Jme bx ;i'Jkcax'B IIoBOJCsia, ohi 
ocTaHaBJHBaexca TaBace n na cochobhxs dopax'B. BTHnHqHHXTi 
aiHBOTHHXi fiopa", roBopHTx OH-B (cTp. ] 89), „oieHL HeuHoro"; 
^la.Tfce, 1T0 „(|)ayHa fiopoBi asJiaeTCfl caMofl Si^iHoft h no hhcjiv 
BH^jOBX H no KOJiHiecTBy oco(5o8, H qiMT. SoJiie npHMimaHO k^ 
cocHi .iBCTBeHHuxx ^lepeBfeGBx, T^Mh Cora^e pasHoofipasH'fcfi 
.I'fe.iaeTca Sopocaa (J)ayHa, — nocjii^iHee KOHeiHo coBepraeHHo 
cnpaBe,a;jiHBO. TeuainuuB (j^opHaHH 6opa Kor^iaHOBt c^h- 
Taeii: SepKVTa (Aquila nobilis), cipyio cosy [Syrnium ura- 
Icnse), lepHaro Sb^iocnHHearo ^tai^a, Apo3jia-;i;epa6y, MOCKOBKy 
(Parus ater), xoxjiaryK) C0H0i;y h raoiKy [Farus palustris), 
HHffia, nono.!i3Ha, coiiKy, rayxapa, 64.iBy ByHHi];y, a wa cui- 
inaHHUXi. H noMirpeTHqauxi Soposx eme pa6H0Ea. OAHaKO 
HvacHO aaMiTHTb, KaKi sto ;i'fejaeTi. oTiacro h caMi. B r ;i a- 
H B i, 1T0 Bci 9T0 bh;iu BTTpiqaioTca bi cxapoMi. lepHO- 
aicb0, a TaKffie bi ejioBO- hoxtobo^ laBri. CjiiAOBaTejii.HO, 
woffiHO-j0 0X'L Bcixi cq0TaTi. T0n0HHHM0 J5.ASI cocHOBaro 6opa. 
OieBH^Ho, iTo HGJBsa, t4mi 6ojiie, hto HiKOTopua hsx hhxi, 
OTJi0iaioTCii ;i;oBOJii.HO o6niHpHHMi pacnpocTpaaeHieMi hobh- 
;i0MOMy H0KaEo8 onpe;i'6.'ieHHofl CBfl30 ex cochobhm0 6opaMH He 
an^iOTh {Hanp0M. SepKVTi., loati, KyHHtia); a 6'bjiocaEnBuS Jia- 

Hsx 01011,^, no MO0MI, Ha6jiK)jeHiaMi, o6hiho BCTp'fc- 
^iatom0M0Cfl Bi cocHOBBJXT. 6opaxi HyacHO HasBaTb CJi'hji.jK)- 
IU0XT: atejiny {Picus martius), Sojibraoro necTparo ^aiJia 
(Dendroc. major), cfepyio coBy (Syrnium uralense), rjiyxapa, 
meBp0n:y (Anthus arboreus), nisqaro ;ipo3^a {Turdus musicus), 
cofiKy (Garrulus glandarius), xoxjiaiyio c0H0i;y {Lophophanes 
cristatus), Parus ater, Poecile borealis, B03o;ioa {Caprimulgus 
europaeus) h h. ^p. Ho 6o.Tbra0HCTBo h3i 00x1 e;i;Ba-JH MorvTi 
cqHTaTBca fiesycjoBHO THn0qHHM0 ji,s.s SopoBi. Ha06oJi'fie xa- 
paKTepHHM0 ji.Ji& 6opa a ciHTaio He 0x1, a Ap03Aa-;repa6y 
(Turdus viscivorus) JiicHoro asasopoHKa (Alauda arhorea), — 
nT0i^i Boo6me aecBMa pi/iKHXi Haafiojiie CBOficxBeHHiixi 
ropHHM^ ofijiacTajit, T^h oh^ asHByTi HCBJiroTOTeJiBHO bi 60- 



— 67 — 

pax-B. XoTH oh4 h6COMh§hho BCTpi^aioTca H Bi 6opaxi Ha 
paBH0H§, Hanp. bi bocto4ho8 PocciE, ho ao p4;^K0CTH hxi na- 
xoai^teHia laMX ycBOJibsajiH ^o CHXi nopi 01% MHoraxi HSCJffe- 
jioaaTejiefl. BecbMa BfeposTHO, hto cpe;iH nTHn;i BCxpi^aiOTCfl 
eme H ffpyrie bhjih, KOTopne sojikhh 6HTfc npH^HCaeHH k^ 
nepBofiuTHUMi o6HTaTeMMi 6opa, ho hxi Tpyj5H0 Tenepi. ysa- 
saTs KaKi BCJ'fcACTBie fioJiBniofi no^BHJKHOCTH HTHi^i. H JierKoa 
HXi pascejraeMOCTH, laRi h noioMy en^e, hto caMH 6opH b'b 
HacToamee Bpena nojtBeprjiHCB sHaHHTcaBEHMi BBMiHeHiaui, 
CH.iBHO paspiffieHH H nepeMiniaHBi ch cjiobhmh h jHCTBeHHHMH 

JlicaMH, a MiCTaMH H COBChM-B yHHHTOIKeHH. CpeffH HaciKOMUX'B 

ecTb MHorie xapaKTcpHtie bhjh ji,jia CopoBi, HanpHM. hsx <5a6o- 
leK't: cocHOBaa na;teH0iia {Fidonia piniaria); hb-b atyKOBi mcjk- 
jiy npoiHM'B, KaKi mh-S 9to JtrofiesHO coofimajii A. 11. C e a e- 
H b 'b-T aHB-IIIaHCKifi (in litt.), — Spondylis buprestoides 
(THoaqHtia cnyTHHBi cochh) h Cicindela silvatica L. (;wa cy- 
xHXi gopoBT.). MypaBBH TaEHce HM§H)Ti. xapaKxepaHxt o6ma.- 
TeJteS 6opoBi KaK*, HanpaM., Formica cinerea, ocoCsia pasHO- 
be;ihocth atejiTaro a TeMHofiyparo JiaBiycoB'B h h. ^p. ^aate 
HyacHO yKasaTB eme na npHcyiCTBie bi cyxaxi cochobuxi 
dopax'B uiEOTopHxi. CTenHHxx h 6oJite rowHEixi $opMi, na- 
npHM., H3i HTBii'B uojieBoro aKaBopoaaa {Alauda arvensis), 
jxojia. (UpupBi epops), 6ajio6aea {Hiero^alco sacer)^ nycTejiB- 
ry H Kofiqaaa {Erythr. vespertinus) h h^k. flp„ KOTopiia ;i;ep- 
ajaTca rJiaBHHMi oCpaaoMi na rapaxi a nopyfiaxi; bb-b sb^- 
peH — 6apcyKa, bbi raAOBi— sejeayK) amepaniy. TaKBM-B 06- 
pasoM^ (J)ayHa nosBOHoqHHXi acH^oxHHxi cochobhxi 6opoBx, 
co^iepaca bi cedi oieHB Ma-no THaa^BHXi $opMX, OMaqaeica 
cuiinaHHBiMi xapaKxepoMi a coctoht'b rjraBHHMi oCpaaoM's 

B31. BHAOBX TaKKe CBOfiCTBeHHHXl Tafirfi, JLHCTBeHHBIMl jiicaiii 

a Ciena. 

9tott. CMimaaHBifl xapaBiepx 6opoBott $ayHH en;e pisie 
BHpaateH'B b% laipi HacfiROMHxi, b% nacTHocTB y MypaaBeBi, 
K-B pascMOTpiHiio KOTopHXi MH TencpB H nepexo^iHMi. 

MapMeaoJioraHecKaa ^ayaa dopoBi BooQme coctobt% aat 
cii^tyiomaxi ^op^i-: 

5* 



— 68 ~ 



! Camponotus herculeanus 
OC. ligniperdus 
OC vagus 

C. saxatilis (Ch6hpb) 
OC. aethiops 
* Formica cinerea (i. sp,) 
*F. cinerea var. imitans 
**F. rufiharhis (i. sp.) 
'?*F. rufib. var. svbpilosa 
I F. fusca 
OF. sanguinea 

F. sanguin. v. mollessonae 
! F. rufa (i. sp.) 
**F. pratensis 
**F. truncicola 
OF. exsecta 
**F. pressilabris 
**Polyergus rufescens 
Lasius flavus v. odoratus 
*L. flavus V. flavoides 
*L. fl. V. fuscoides 
+ h. myops 
L. niger 
*L. niger v. pinetorum 
(n. nov.) ') 
**L. alienus 
*L. carniolicus 



**L. umbratus 

OL. mixtus 

**L. bicornis v. affinis 

OTapinoma erraticum 

•*Myrmecocystus aenescens^ 

+ Myrmica rubida 

+ M. sulcinodis 

+ M. sulcin. V. fuscipes- 

**M. lobicomis 

**M. scahrinodis 

! M. laevinodis 

! M. ruginodis 

! M. kasczenkoi 

M. rugulosa 
! Mychothorax acervorum 
! M. acervor. v. nigrescens- 
*M. flavescens 
*M. muscorum 

M. muse. var. scamni 
*Toraognathus sublaevis 
**Leptothorax tuberura i. sp. 
OLeptothorax corticalis 
0**Lept. unifasciatus 
OLept. nylanderi 
Ofjept. nyland. v. parvulu^ 
**Lept. serviculus 
*Lept. volgensis 



') Lasius niger var. pinetorum (iiov. var.) K. OTJiH«iaeTCa otx THUHiHoit 
(fcopjiH uoHHMo xapaKTepa MtcTOOfiHiaHiH, eme MeHtraHMH pasatpasiH TtJia- 
(cp. ji.li- 3 mill) H Oojite HtacHoA, CoJi4e MeJiKofl, crjaseHHoft CKyjiBiiTypoit 
noBepxHocTH xHTHua, noieay 3t8 nouepxaocTB MJiteTi 6oate aBciBeHHHt oi- 
fiaecKx. OEpaKa Ttja Bcerfla HtcKoaBKO lejiHte ^t>ii y iHna. rnisAHTCJi vh 
necqanuxi xojisiHKaxi. bx cochobhii 6opaxi, lacTo coBJitCTHo c* acejiTHM'B jia- 
siycoM'i. 5KH3HB Be.iert Oojite uoasenuyH), q4Mi TunH^HH* Las. niqer. CajiUH 
H ca:uh'u ocofieHuuxi oTju^itt He BpcACTaBJixioTx, xpoitl HicBo.iiKO ueuinrux'^ 
pajjiipoBi. 



— 69 — 

Formicoxenas nitidulus ♦♦Solenopsis fugax 

^*Tetramoriunt caespitum **Sol. orientalis 

♦•Strongylognathus chri- ♦♦Messor structor v. cli- 
stophi vorum 

Hsi EpHBeAeHHUXX Bl 8T0MI CnHCRi $OpMl Ti, KOTOpua 

Hane^aTaHu EypcHBOM'B, jusjiaioTCa Haii6oJ9:le o6uBHOi!eHHBiiiB e 
HaHiame ecTpiqaiomHMHca bx 6opaxi. *opMH ae, soTopHxi 
-HvatiBO CTOTaTb xapaKTepauMH wa 6opoBi, oTMiqeHu SBtanoi- 

KOfi; HXl, KaRT. BH^HO, CpaBHHTeJbHO O^eHb He MHOrO. Hb^ HHXl 

QjLBS BCCLMa pacnpocrpaHeHH h oShkhobchbh b% 6opaxi, a 
HMCHHO Form, dnerea (THnaqaaa h v. imitans), atejiTufi h 6y- 
puft jiasiycu, Myrm. scdbrinodis, Form, rufiharbis s.suhpilosa. 
Jljpyria cpasHHTejiBHo pi;ii;EH, nanp. Mych. muscorum. HaKoaeiti 
TpextH oTJiBHaioTCfl caopa^H'iecKHMi pacnpocTpaaeHieMi., sBAaacB 

<}lOpMaMa UOBHABMOMy BeCblia JipeSHaMH, peJtHKTOBUHH; TaXOBM 

Tumogn. sublaevis, Lasius carniolicus, Leptoth. volgensis. Hat 
HHxx nepBHfl BB^x, ffiHBymifi B% ^a■fe3J^ax^ Mych. acervorum a 
wMscorwrn, aafiieai bi Jl,aaia, niBeAia, ^Hajaaflia a at nB^x-h 
•avHETaxt roasaaro Ypaaa. Las. carniolicus, saxBaxHBaa cbobm^ 
oSiABMi pac^pocTpaBeaieM^ hohth bchj Eapoay, 3aaa;iHyH) Ca- 
fiapb m KaBKaBX, asBicTeat s^tict Bcero a.^b 6 M'icxoaaxojE^ie- 
aifi, ^lOBOJibBO yiajenaHxi. jipyri oti apyra a bi ;^Byx^ Mtcraxi 
.(HMeaao bb y({)aMCKoH ry6. a bi SasaBBaabu) oai aafiAeai ae 
Bt ()opax^, a b% o;iaoM'£ CJiyqab aa KaMeaacroMi, cTcaaoMi 
-CKJoai (y^BMCK. ry6.), a bi ;ipyroMx aa aecKaxi, aopncmax'B 
■raaapaKCOM'b a Calligonum (ob. Apajiuxa b^ SasaBBasbt), a 
aoTOMy MosKBT'L 6nTb 9TH BMeBBO M'icTOHaxoatAeaia CEopie 
vEasHBaioTi aa ero nepsaHBoe^ nepBoSuTBoe MbcTOoSaTaaie. 
■^Toate Kacaetca Leptoth. nassonovi volgensis, to ob% aafi^eat 
TOJibEO aoKa 3'h oiBOMi ayaBT^, BMeaao bi aJeryjiaxi, aa hs- 
BeCTEOBHXx yT€cax%, nopocmaxi cocbukomi; bh bi oKpecTBux'B 
<5TenflXi, KB Bi fiopaxi aa necsaxi obi, ae cuorpa aa mob 
TinaTe-UbBbie noBCKa, ae aaHAeai, uaEb nto xaKaa bckjik)hh- 
TMbaaa piAsocTb ero M'icToaaxomAeHia e^Ba-JiB saBacBTi oit 
Be;i;ocTaToiaocTa BSCJiiAOBaaia. Cio^iia ase Momao npaqaciHTb h 



70 



Leptothorax flavescens, xota ohx HaH^CHS noEa tojbko cpe^H 
Haca»;ieHifl .iHCTBeHHHi^H okojo xpefiia yfi-Tami bi losHOMt 
Ypa^i^, HO HecoMH§HHO AOJiateHx Bcrpi^aTBca Tawi-ae h bi> 
cocHOBHxi 6opaxi. 

OcTajbHHH (fopMH CHHCKa npcijcTaBjiaioTt necxpyio CM^cfc 
H Bi CTanioHapeoM'B oiHoineHiH Moryii 6htb pasA^^eHH na 
c.i'ii;iyiomia rpynaa: 1) maeMuuH ^opMii, oxM'i^eHHHfl 3Ha- 
KOMT. (!); 2) 4>opMH, CBOflCTBeHHHa no npeHMymeCTBy AUcmeeH- 
HbtMZ AibcaMi, OTMi^eHBHa KpyaKKOUi (O); 3) (JopMH cmen^- 

HblH, H3% KOHXX MHOrifl IDHpOKO paCnpOCTpaHCHEl H ^aJCKO 3a- 

xoitaxi Ha ciBepx, nocejaacb 3;^icI. HBOJiHpoBaHeo Ha cne- 
niajibHux^ wicxaxT. odaxaHia (necKH, loatHHe cmohbi, yxecu,. 
CKaJH) H npe;rcxaB.iiaa 3;i4cb xapaKxep-B 9K30i!KBHecKaro pae- 
npocxpaHeaia; bcI; oh* oxMi^eaH jtsyiia SBis^to^KaMH (**). 
jl&n-be qexBepxyio rpynny npe^tcxaBjiaioxi (|)opMH lopuuH, 
HMeHHO xi, OKOJO Eoxopuxi, uocxaBjCHi 3HaKi ( + ). Epo- 
Mi xoro H3i BH^toBt 2-il H 3-e8 rpynny, x, e. CBoftCTseH- 
Hr.ix^ Ha paBHHHi Efipon. PocciH Ji-fecaiii hjh cxenaui, Heo6- 
xo^HMO ocxaHOBHxi. BHHMaHie Ha xaKHxi, Koxopne xaEate atHByxi 
H btj BucoKofi o5jiacxH ropi., cpe^jn HaropHHXi cxenefi a Bt 
a;ibni2cE0Xx Jiyraxt; axo xi huchho bh;i;m, Koxopae a Ha3HBaK)- 
lopHO- AihCHUMU H lopHO-cmetmuMu. Kx nepBUMT> npBHajiJieataxT): 
Form. /2<sca, L. flavus (flavoides), Myrm. ruginodis, Mychoth. 
muscorum h acervorum, kg btophm'b oxHOcaxca: Las. alienus, 
Form, ryfibarbis, Myrm. lobicornis, Myrm. scahrinodis, Tetram. 
caespitum. HaKoneax, HyajHO oxMixnxB h xaKHX-B MypaBBeBi, 
Koxopae xoxa h noM'femeBU mhoio jjih hojihotu bb ;iaHHHfl chh- 
coK^, HO co6cxBeHHO 6opaMi HecBofiCTBeHHtr, 9X0 HMeHHO Myr~ 
mecoc. aenescens a Messor strudor v. divorum; ohh Bcxpi- 
^aioxca H np0TOMX> xojibko bx npe;ii.Tax% cxenaofl o6jiacxB 
no onyniKaMx (oKpaHnaMi,) cochobhxt. 6opoBx h na necia- 
HHX'f., nopocranxi p^akhmii cocHajiH CEJoaax-B ;i;ojihhei Bojih 
(CaMapcK. ry6.)- 

JHo cocxaBy MHpMeKOJtorHqecKaro Hace;ieHia, rpynnHpoBKi 
(})opMx H oSmeMy 6iojiorHqecKOiiy xapaKxepy cocHOBHe Sopi* 



— 71 — 

pacnaxaioTca aa TpH THna: a) CHpue MmHCTue 6opH: 6) cyxie 
aainafiHHBOBue 6opH; b) 6opu, pacTymie Ha CBaaaxt b yTecaxi. 

Mumcmue 6opu, npe^tCTEBjaiomie EepBo6HTBBit thh-b, pa- 
cxyTi. wh cupuxi HHSMeHHHXi M'lfecTaxi b HMiioTx rycTofl noBpoBi. 
B3^ JLHCTBeHHHxt MxoBx, no?Ba no]i,i, EOTopHMH ocTacTca (Sojte 
HjiH MeHie BJiaatHOft; BCJiiscTsie cayieaHO'!TH cocchi. h saaqH- 
TCJibHoa BHCOTH Hxi Bx taKHXT. 6opaxi Bcerja rocnojucTByexi 
rtHb, TpaBaHHCTua ate noupoBX pasBHTi. ipesBHTOfiHO caaSo. 
Tasie 6opH Haceieau rjiaBHtiHi) oSpasoH's Ke.ixuH'B h ?epHo- 
6ypuMi JiasiycaMH (Lasius flmus, v. fuscoides a v. flavoides, 
Las. niger var. pinetorum), JSHBymHMH bi seMJiaHnx-B xojimh- 
Kax-B, saTaHjrHxt CBepxy mxomi. JIasiycH sth qpesBHiafiHO 
xapauTepHH js,Aa MraacTUXi SopoBt. Hflor^ia oaa atHByxt BM^CTi 
B-h o;nHOMi. H TOMT.-me xoaMHui, ofipaaya coci;tCKoe cosHxeab- 
CTBO HJa MOffiexi-daxb jaaie napaSiost; BMtcxt c^ hhmh jrh- 
Byxx H xjiH Bi sa^ecxB'^ cosaieJiefi, paBHO KaKi> h atyneBi. 
Claviger. ShmoS ohh yMtioxTb nowepffiHBa,xb BHCOEyio xeanepa- 
xypy BTb CBOHXt rHis^iax'fc h noTOMy He aacHoaiox'B h HiribiOTi 
^aate aHiHHOKx bi. pasjiaiHHxi. Bospaexaxi (Kaai axo mh^ npa- 
niiocb Ha6JIK);^axb bt> kohii;^ Hoa6pa h Hanaa'h ^eaafipa, bi 
KasaHCKot ry6.). Kpoiti yKaaaHHHX^ aasiycoBi n-h TaKHXi 60- 
paxi uonasawxca eme: Las. flavus var. odoratus, a mi, ;ipy- 
raxi My paBbBBT.— Camp, herculeanus, Fovmica rufa, F. fusca, 
Mychoth. acervorum, pi^e muscorum, Myrm. laevinodis a 
ruginodis, erne pise Myrm. scabrinodis h lohicornis h xo no- 
cjii^iaia jBi B-b xaRHXi ogaKHOBeHHo Micxaxi, r^i midhcthS 
6opi HaqHHaexi nospHBaxbca JiHrnaSHHEaMB a nepexo^Hxi b^ 
cyxofl. MniHCXHe 6opH SoJibuiaxi y^acxKosx He o6pa3yioxi, a 
flBjaioTca BKpan.TieHHUMH cpe;iH cyxHXx 6opoBi hjih ejOBO-nnx- 
xoBOfi xaMre; qacxo ohb nepeMtssaioxca ci moxobumh 6oaOTaMH 
HJiB rpaHHiiaxi HenocpeiicxBeHHO ci hhmb, npHqeMi na oKpaa- 
saxi xaKHX% 6oj[ox'b b% Ko^Kaxi nepi^KO noce^aioTca Mgrmica 
ruginodis, M. laevinodis, Form, fusca. 

Cyxie 6opbi pacxyxx aa jioHaxi,' BooSnie BOSBHraeHHEixi 
M'fecxax'b. IIoiBa 0x1 necnaaaa, noKpHxaa onaBuiet XBoeS, ;ib- 
maaiHsaMH h p'j^^Kofl xpaBafiBCxoa pacTBxejtBHOCxbH), cpe;(H 



— 72 — 

KoropoB He Ma^o BCrpt^aerca THnnqaaxx cxenHuxi ^pttt, 
KasoBU aanpHM. 6oropoacKaa xpaBa {Thymus serpillum. Th. 
mnrschallianus), Festuca sulcata, rBoajHKa (Dianthus poly- 
morphus), Centhaurea marschalliana, Anemone patens ii ;ip , 
Tasate EycTapHHKH Cytisus biflorus h Genista tinctoria, paBHO 
KaK7. H pacTeHJfl, CBOflcTBeHHua JiecKaMi, aanp. Calluna vuh 
ffaris, (jtjiaa rB03jtHKa {Bianth. arenarius). Ho bc§ pacreaifl 
3TH, paBBO KaKi H .iHmaBHHKH, Hc ofipasyfOTi cnioniHoro uok- 
poBa, a pacxyTi pasGpocaHHo cpejiH rojofi h cyxofl nec^aHofi 
noiBFj, tracTbK) canyqefi h paxjiofl. Cochh bx TaKHXi 6opaxi. 
cTOflTi, p'fe^iKO n BCj-fejicTBie 6ojif.raoro npocTopa CHJitH'ie pas 
poriaioTCii B^ niHpHHY, liMi, Bi. BHfflHHy, pasiBHraii ^aaeKO 
BT> CTopoHH ToacTBie KopHBHe cvHha H ranpoKO pacnycKaa eep- 
inHHv. T^HH Bx 3THXK fiopaxi Majio; Bx jiiiaifi shoS SuBaeTi 
cyxo, fltapKO h jiviuho. 

Kx cyxHMT. fiopaw^ upHMWKaiOTi xaKffie o6inHpHHa rapa 
H nopy<>KH, oiJiBMRiomiaca xo-ikko x4mi, tfo Ha hhxi pacxyxi 
KpoM'fe eme 6oaie pt;iKHxi mo.uo;i;uxx coceei, erqe Cepesa h 
ocHna, Measly KoxopuMH ocxaioxca raHpoKie oxKpuxHe npoMC- 
ayxKH ci no-iycrHHEinHMH nHAMH h ct> 6oj'6e doraxofi xpasa- 

HHCTOa H KyCxapHHKOBOfi paCTHXejIbHOCTBH). 

Cyxie 6opH ct. hx'b rapaMH b nopy6aMH HMiioxi ipcsBM 
qaMHO HHxepecHvH) MapMeKoaorHqecByio (|)ayHy. noqea 3j[4cb na 
^OJite H.1H Menie oxKpHxtixi iipocxpaecxBaxs odHEHOBeHHO 
CHjiboo UHHupoBaHa xo;i;aMH a HopKaMH Lasius alienus, For- 
mica cinerea, imitans, rufiharhis (hjih v. subpilosa); MypaehH 
9TH TO H ]iijio nonaaaioxca ea rjiasa CByromaMH cpe;tH Kycxa- 
KOBi 6t loH rBosiHKH {Dianthus arenarius), acxparajia {Astra- 
galus arenarius), Anemone patens, BcpecKa h Keaepia {Koeleria 
glauca), oSfaiHHMH cnyxBHKaMH Koxopuxx oaaaBJiaioxca. Tyx%- 
ase uo coci;tcxBy cpejjH pasHHXt ^iHraaSHHKOBi, AepHOBHHi. i^es- 
tuca, KycTOBi Cytisus BCxpiqawTca nsarnHHa aacHnHua rHis- 
/lUiuKH Form, pressilabris, MajrenbKiH KOHyci Koxopaxi cjio- 
jKen'f) lacxo 03^ xixi-ae' .iHrnaMaHKOBi h npopocx naxyiawt 
Thymus serpyllum. Bt nnaxi, HaxojcamHxca hi pasjtHHHHxi. 
cxa;iiaxB pa^pymeflia, acHByii xhxo noaaaiomie qepHHC Kawno- 



— 73 — 

HOTycu (Gatnpon. herculeanus, vagus, saxaiilis, aethiops), Form, 
fusca, a TaKse BMicTi ex hcio h Form, sanguinea; uo^'b bo- 
pofi aaefi roxafcs aeaxoTopaKCH {Mychoth. acervorum, musco- 
rum, Lept. uni/asciatus, tuberum h sp ), hjh mh]p«hkb. Tyii- 
ate nonanaioTca KpyuHua, HacanHHa nocxpoflBH i^orOT. ruf'a, 
F. pratensis h F. truncicola, npmewh y ^Byxi nocJii^aaxx 
oai aoMimaioTca na oxBpuTHXx, cojHeHHBixi. aicxaxt cpejiH 
rapH HflH nopyfiEH, a y i^. rufa aa ORpaHHi, noat rfeBbio 
A'peBteBTE.. Jl^ajiie, sjiicb sectMa ^lacxu sewjiaHHe xojimbkh, 
oouKHOseHHO Hopocmie paCTHxeJibHOcxtio, oSaxaeMue Tetra- 
mor. caespitum, — oshhmi hjih coBnicxBO Ch Strongylog- 
nathus christophi, — Lasius carniolicus, Las. umbratus, Las. 
mixtus, Form, rufiuurbis, Myrm. scabrinodis, npHqeui hc- 
piiKO SuBaexi OAna-b b rox^-ffie xojhbs':^ sapaxi pasJiB^- 

HUMH BHJaMH, SHByiUHMH OXJli^BHilMH MypaaefiHHBaMH, HO 

Bi. HeEOcpejcTBCHHOMx cocife;^cxB§ apyri ch Apyroiii. Sa^cB- 
ate HsptflKa mokho BCTpixaTB h siypaBba-aMasoHKy {Polyergus 
rufescens), nocejHBmaroca hjh Bt UHi, ec;iH ero paSojix aa- 
jiaerca Form, fusca, hjh bti Hopaxi. sMtcxi Ch Form, rufi- 
harbis hjih ptae Form, cinerea. Ha^ MapuHKi, Epout yxe yno- 
MflHyxoS -3f. scabrinodis. -ijifkch oSuibh ilf. lobicornis, upe;iao- 
inxaiomaa atHxi. b-b Hopaxx, npHspuBmHCb KaMBeMx. hjh Ky- 
CKOMi. EopH, sax^Mi Myrm. rugulosa, M. laevinodis h rugi- 
nodis, npHiewi jnwb aocjitjaia Haaiame BufiHpaiox'b cbohmi 
MtcxoJKHxejibCXBOMi. cxapHe HHH, xoxa Moryxx khxb h npauo 
Bx. seMJi* ^0J^^ lepaoBHHEaMii jramafiaHKOBi, uxa, hjh EyqEawH 
jincTbeBT-, HJH aame no^i cyxHjii noMexoMi CKOxa. B% fiojite 
P'fej^RHXx cjiy^aflxx xyxi-ae Moryxi 6uxi. acipiHeau Myrm. 
rubra a sulcinodis. TaEHMx. o6paBOMi mu ajtcb KaRi HHri'6 
BT> jpyroMT) Micxi BaS.uojiaeMi yAHBaxcuBayio aecxpoxy ^lopMX, 
Bcxp'fe^aa aa aefiojibmoMi npocxpaacxBi atHByni,HMH fiaasEO ipyr^ 
OTX jipyra ex. oahoB cxopoati MypaBtCBi, CBOflcxBeHBHxt xaSr'fe 
B jiHCXBeaaoMy Jiicy, a ex ^pyrofl — ^hcxo cxenauxx., ropao- 
cieaauxi h ropauxx. 

(7oc«a na cnaAaxt u ymecaxs oSpaayexx ocxpoBEH bx ro- 
paxx Ch6hph, aa KaBRasi, b-b Kpuwy, bi ^HaMHsia, aa Ypa- 



— 74 — 

a'fe, a Tasse h ea BOSBumeeHuxi nyHBTaxi cpe;iB pasHiiBU 
Espoa. Poccin h ChShph (ffieryjH, Cb. Fopa B^ XapbKOBCK. 
ry6., conKH at Abmojihhcko8 o6ji.). Octpobbh sth, naCTO OKpy- 
ateHHue cnjioraHUMH JiBciBeBHUMH jiicasiH mh CTeuLK), Bcerjia 
coxpanaroTB cbo8 caMOCToaTeJii.HHft rafiHxycx h HwiioTi cbok) 
ocoSyio 4>ayHy, cocTosmyio 03^ (|)opMi hjh cneBia-ubSHXi, saKi 
Leptoth. flavescens (Ypaai), Leptoth. nassonovi volgensis (aa 
JKeryaeBCBBXi ropaxi), Tomognathus sublaeris (Ba YpaJii h b'* 
<&HBJiflB;iiH), BJiH-aje ropBO-ji'hcBBixi {Mychoth. acervorum, Mych. 
muscorum, Myrm. ruginodis), ropHO-CTenHuxi [letram. caespi- 
turn, Form, rnfibarbis, Form, gagates, Camp, saccatihs, Myrm. 
lohicornis, Las. alienus, Las. bicornis var. af finis), CTensHxi. 
(Leptoth. serviculus), a ropenxx {Myrm. stilcinodis, Myrm. 
rvbida, Lasius myops). <l>ayHa xaKBX^ cochobhxi GopoBx bo^th 
TOJKiecTBeHBa ch ^ayaofl JiHCTBeaHqBHxi 6opoBb, Kas^ axo xu- 
pomo MoaiBO 6u:io Ha6aK);iaTb na Fpaai. 

TaKHM'i. ofipasoMi no xapaKiepy cBoefi MHpMeKo.ioraiecKOfli 
4)ayHH cocBOBHe 6opH na CKajaxi b yxecax^ cxo;ibu ch cy- 
XBMH 6opaMH na BecBaxi^ ho OTJBqaioTt'a: 1 ) BOoCnie MeBBniBMi 

KOJIBieCTBOM^ ^OpMl B OTCyTCTBieMl MBOrHXX BBJIOBI (aaEpHM. 

Polyergm rufescens, Form, truncicola, Camp, vagus), cbo3- 
cTBeaaaxi cyxBMT. 6opaM^, h cpe^B bbxi jiaae xaKBXi., koxo- 
ptie (KaE^ Form, cinerea) jiojjkbh ciHxaxbca xapaKxepaHMH jtjia 
nocjijiBBXT.; — 2) npacyxcxBieM^ aiKOxopuxi xapaKxepanxi 
4)opMi, noKa B'L paBBBBHHXi 6opaxx ae Bafi^eaHHxi, h saxtMt 
o'jeBB^lBBiM'b npeof)JiajiaaieMi ropao-CTeBBHX'b (JjopMx., xoponio 
yjKBBaioniHXca aa KaMeaBCxoMi cy6cxpari>, noce.iatoii^Bxca b-b 
uie-iax^ CKaJix., nosi ^epaOBBHKaMH xpaBaaHcxuxi pacxeaifl a 
Mxa, wh seMJii npa ocaoBaaia cocenx, a no;i'b axi Kopofi. Co- 
Bepuieaao xaKOfi-ate xapaKxept coxpaaaexi a MBpMeKO^ayaa 
.iBcxBeBBHaHxi CopoB-B, BO xoJbKO jiBCXBeBBBi^a KaKi fioji'ie pac- 
npocTpaHeaaaa ^lu.'h cocaa b^ ropaxx, Ypaaa a Aixaa BM-feext 
B fiojite fioraxyro bx KOJiaMecxBeaaoMx oxBomeBia ^ayay; cxa- 
Aioaapaufi-ate xapaKxepi ea a cocbh oflaax. a loi^-ate. 

CM-feBiaBBHS cocaoBHft 6opi. aaqero xapaKxepaaro vh ox- 
BoraeaiH ^ayan ae apeACxaBJiaeii. Oaa ox^iaiaexca bjih 6'£a- 



— 75 — 

BoeTBK) H oaHootfpasieMi, ecjiH 6opi nepcMimaHi ci Tafirofl, 
T. e. ci naxToB h eabio, mh HanpoxHRi Humeri fioaie pasHO- 
xapaKxepHufi cocxass, Korja cpe^a cochh pacxexi MHoro an- 
cxBeHHHXT. aepeBBBBx. Bi> nepBOMi cay^ai b-b 6opy oxcyx- 
cxByexi (5ojibmaa ^acxt $opMi., CBoflcxBeHHHXi cyxHMi eopaMt; 
HO jasiycH o6uKnoseano Bcer^ta Hiiiioxca bi cbohxi xoaMHsaxi^ 
Bo BxopoMx — npHMiiDHBaioTca $opMu, xapaKxepHHa ffaa aHcxBen- 
HHxi aicoBi; 3axo .lasiycu cxaHOBsxca ptisHMH, h Hcieaaroxs 
MHorie xHnHHHue xaxejiH 6opoB%, nanp. Formica cinerea, F, 
rufib. V. subpUosa. 

C T e n fe 

Cmenuaa MapMeKCiorH^ecBaa (j^aysa upiypo^CHa Ki, noaocfe 
cxenefi, BaHHMaiomHXi bck) do^xh loatHyio noaoBHHy Espon. 
Poccifi a K)ro-3ana;iHyio lacxt CadapH. BtipaateHa osa xaEate 
M'J^cxaMH B'b EpiiMy, Ha EaBsasi, bx TypEecxaH'i&, paBao Basi^ 
Bx cpe^Hefi H BocxoHHofi Ch5hph. Bi ^oeJl'i;^HHX'b MicxHocxaxt 
9jeMeHXu ea anpo'ieMX xoqao eme He yciaHOBJieHH. CnaomHoro 
pacapocxpaHeHia axa (|)ayHa no KpafiHcfi Mip* bi Eep. Poccia 
Bi Eacxoamee BpeMa ae HMiexi, xaEi KaEi jiBCXBeaHHa cxena 
noiTB Hcxpedaeau a saaaxu noaaMH a noceaeaiaMa HeaoBtKai 
Il^jiBHiafi xapaKxepx oaa coxpanaexx xoabBO aa lixx cpasaa- 
TejBHO aeSojiBuiHXX yiacxKaxx a irjiohk&x% aiaaaHofi cxena, 
Koxopae eme coxpaaHaacb KOfi-rA* bx Esp. Poccia, raaaa. 
o5pa30Mx aa BoexoKt, bx SaBOjatba, sax-feMX bi 3aypa.ibH a 
Bx Saaaaaofi Cb6bpb. Ho axanx oxpHBOnawMx, pasSpocaaaHMi 
H pasieflHBeHHHMx xenepb yqacxKaMi a npaxo^axca Boscxaao- 
BJiaxb Kapxaay cxeaaoa ffiBsaa. KpoMi xoro ox^iabaua cxenaua 
(|)opMH, Kaax 9T0 Mu BBsiaa yate, pacapocxpaaeHfii ;iaaeK0 aa 
ciBepx. oxx noaocH cxeaefl; xaiix oat wxaxca no OEpaaaaMx a 
aojiaaaMx pasaa^HHXi aicoBx, bi fiopaxx, aa iojkhhxx CKaoaaxi., 
aa yxecaxx a cEaaaxx, nacxbio bx piqaaxx ^oMaaxx; Besj'i 
xaMX oat oxqacxH coxpaaaaacb bs KaiecxBt pejuBExoBHXx ^opMi, 
oxqacxa-aje asaaroxca ^opjiaMB npaniaHMB, hobhmh, odaapya^a- 



— 76 — 

BaiomaMH crpeMjeeie ^tBHraxbca see ^ajbrae, 'leay 6jaroupiaT- 
CTByen> ;i'iaTejii.HoeT6 TCJiOB^Ka. 

GxeaHafl MapMCKO^ayBa, cooCpasHO xapaKxepy caaiofl CTena, 
pacnaaacTca na cJiiiiyromifl ciai^ioHapHHfl rpyanu: 1) ^^•yHy 
HepHoacMHOii mpaeHHucmoil, (Aytoeou m KoeuAhuo-A) ctchh; 2) — 
KycmapnuKoeou ctnenu; 3) — KaMeHucmoU cmenu h 4) — co- 
lOHneeamou cmenu h coaohhosz, npe^craBJiaiomyio ys&e nepe- 
xo;i'b Ki nycTUB'fe. 

JyroBHfl KOGHJbHUfl CTcnH paciyTi ea HepHosewt, ko- 
TopuB sajieraexi uiapoKoB nojiocoi loffinie jitcoBi bt. Espon. 
Poccia, npocTHpaacb oti noAHoatia Kapnaii m YpaJa. Ha 
cfesepi} rpaHHii,a lepHOscMa HM^eTi bhai JioMaHHofl iHHin, npo- 
xoAaiAefl npH6jH30Tejjbuo 'lepesi. BepfijmeB'b, Kiesb, OpeJi, 
T}jy, PasaHb, MopmaHCKi, TaMfioBT., DeHsy, TexioniH, Ih- 
CTonoJb ^0 p. Btjofi. Ha rori ohi nepexo^HTi bt. oHHHCTua, 
cojiOHi;oBaTbia cTenH-nycTHHH, 3aHHMaK)iii,ia ciBepnyio ^acTB 
KpuMa, nooepesKbe %pHaro MOpa, nacTbio ITpe^iKaBEasbe, bo- 
oSme HHSOBba Ayami, /l,H'fenpa, ^ona h Bojira. Bume cbBepaoa 
rpaaBmu yepHOseMHO-cTenaoa o^JiaciH jtemaTi aicKO^BKO qep- 
HOscMHuxT. ocxpoBOBb, Koxopue Bci saHaxu xenepb noaauH. B-b 
AOHCxopH^ecKoe Bpena, Kasi BuacHH^ix. F. H. T a h ^ h j b- 
e B 1. '), clBepHaa rpaHOAa cxene oxoABaraJiacb aicKOJibKO 
jiajibine Ki cisepy, jioxo^a ;i;o JIjoojiHHa^ BpaacKa, KaayrH, Cep- 
nyxoBa, HaaiHaro HoBropoAa a MajiMHSia BaxcKOfl ryOepaiH. 
Ha Bocxoai cxenb no lomabiM^ oxporaMi ypaJbcaaro xpeSxa 
nepexo;iHXT) bx 3ana;[i,nyK) CaSapb, saxsaxHBaa sji/kcb mapoiioe 
npocxpaacTBO, kx BOcxoKy nocxeneHao ctyiKHBaioaieeca. 

Ho xapaKiepy pacxaxejibBOCXH a (j[)ayaH qepaoseMBaa 
xpaBaaacxaa cxenb pa3;i;'t;iaexca aa JiyroByio a xanqaKoeo- 
KOBbiJibByio, 031 KOPxi nepuaa SoJiie pasBaxa aa ciBept 
cxenaoS nojiocu, Bxopaa aa lorii. 9xb ;i;Bt substationes ox- 
jib qaioxca ^pyri OTx APyra ci. nepBaro Bsrja^a jxe cbohmx 
BBiuiBHMi ra6BxycoMT. : jyroBaa cxeni. aaxaayxa cajioia- 



'; Cm. T aH (})Ha BBBi, T. H. JtoHciopHiecKia cienH EBponeBcKoa Pop- 
da, c% KapToS (SeiiJieBtfl'iHie, 1906 r., kh. 2). 



— 77 — 

BtiHt pasHOtpaBfluMi noKpoBOM'B, BOBiiaiiaa-se aospuTa ox^ 
^l-fcatHO pacTyiTiHMH aepHOBHHaMH nepHCTUXl hjih bojoch- 
CTHXi BOBHJiefi, THB^aKa, Avena desertorum h sp., Meajjy 
KOTopuaia ocTawTca npoMeayxKH roaofi, aaitMi He nospHToft 
noHBBi. EoBUJibBafl CTens o6JIaIaeT^ 6oji%e THnKHHOfi h <5oJite 
fioraiofl $ayHofl. Measy BOBHJii.Hofi a ayroBOtt cxeaBio cyme- 
CTByiOTt uo.iHHe aepexojta, pasHO Kasx Tasie-Ke nepexo^H na- 
(JjtoAaiOTCfl H no OTBomeHiio sycxapaBKOBofi a BaueBHCTott CTenu. 

$opMaMB lepBoaeiiHoa ayroBo-KOBH;ibHoa cxenn aBjatoica: 

Lasius umbratus *Leptothorax nassonovi 

*L. exacutus *Lept. stipaceus 

L. alienus *Lept. serviculus 

Formica pratensis Lept. unifasciatus 

F. uralensis Myrmica scabrinodis 

F. pressilabris M. lobicornis 

F. rufibarbis *M. lobicorn. v. deplanata 

Solenopsis orientalis *M. lobic. v. schenckii 
Tetramorium caespitum 

KpoM'fe Toro Bi cteab aoBUJibHyro a jiyroByio aaxo^aTx asi 
cociflBBX-fi yiacTKOBT) KaMeHucTofi a KycTapHBKOBofi CTcna 
Myrmecocysius aenescens, Messor structor (a v. clivorum), 
Form, sanguinea, Form, gagates, Polyergus rufescens, Form, 
rufibarbis v. subpilom (bbt. 6opa); a BtKOTopaa b3% bhxii 
raisAaTca aa aeB. $opMH, OTMi^easHa aBiasoqKofi (*) bi cnacEt, 
noaa/tajiBCB mh* tojibko aa KOBHJ&aofl CTeaa; aa JiyroBofi ate 
Ciena oa^ noBB^auoMy BopuaiBHO ae saByxi. 

MypaBBH, CBoflcTBCHBHe TanqaKOBO-KOBHJibaofi jiyroBOfl cte- 
na, rais^Tca nonpeaMyn^ecTBy bi> sea;!*, bx aopaxx; ocoSeaao jiio- 

6Zfh OBB Ce4BTCfl OBOJIO BJIE QOA'B AepBOBBBaUB cxeaHuxi SaaKOB'B 

(KOBHaa, Festucay j^vena desertorum^ Koeleria); tojibko For. 
uralensis^ pratensis h pressilabris ^lijiaiOTi. HacHUHHa coopy- 
atefiia, Koiopua y For. pratensis ^acxo jiocTaraiOTT, KpyaBHXx 
pasM'lkpoB'B a OBpyxaiOTCa o6aiapBUHi> BajioMi. Co6cTBeHHO- 
Form. pratensis a uralensis ae npeaaffaeffiaTX bt. TanaqauMx 



78 



oSHTaiejiflMi TpaBaHHCTofi cxena; hxt. ra§3;i;a noMimaioTca Bce- 
rjia Ha OEpaaHax^ cxena no 6jih3octh ki KycTapHHKaiii h.ih 
onyniK§ .Tfeca, Kvjia ohh HeasMiBHo h saxojiaTi, codnpaa xaMt 

oSjIOMKH Cy^LCB^, B3X KOTOpilXl CTpOSTl HapySHHC KOHyCH H 
KOTOpUMH BHnOJIHaiOTX BHyxpeHHOCTb BOpOHOK'B CBOHXl Th^^A'h. 

ToKHO TaK^EC Ma;io THnH^au ^Jia xpaBaHHCTOfi cxena Leptoth. 
iinifasciatus a Las. umbratus. Hspi^Ka nona;iaexca aa aefi a 
Lasius mixtus (okojio jibcxb. ji4cob^). #opMaMH xapaKxepaHMH 
,ua KOBiJJiBHoB cxena ay;KHO ciaxaxt Lept. nassonovi, L. 
stipaceus. IIocjit-AHiS oieab oSHEaOBeaeai bt> cxenax% bx 3ana- 
;inoB CaSapa, nopocmax'B rpaaaxaaKOM^ {Libanotis sibirica), E-b 
uycxux'B cxefijiflxi Koxoparo npa axi ocaoBaaia oh* rB'h3;iHxcfl. 

KaMeuucmaH cmenb aaaaiiaexx scerjia Jianib cpaBaaxe^BHo 
ae6o.ibniie orpaaaieHaue yqacxKB xeppaxopia, 6yji;yqH paasaxa 
HCKJiroqaxejiBBo aa KaMeaacxaxt xoaMaxx, aa cKaaax-B, yxecax^ 
a Ha pasjiaqBHXT) CKJioaaxi), o6paa],eHHHXi aa K), lOB bjih 
K)3. OcaoBBUM^ Yc;iOBieM'B njia ea npoaspacxaaia cayatax^ 
xBep,iHH KaMeaacxHfi cy6cxpaxx, 6'fe;i;Hocxi> noHBCHaaro noKposa 
H cyxocxb ero, noneMy a pacxaxejiBHOcxb KaMeaacTOft cxena 
Kcepo({)nxaaro xapaKxepa. Ha xojiMax^ oaa ojiiBaexxi KaKx cejio- 
HH Hxx., xaK-B II BepmHBH, a ocoCeaao xapaKxepao pasBBxa aa 
ypa.ii, Bi. FytfepjiaaCKBXx a HH;i;epcKaxi ropaxi, b-b KaprBSCKofi 
cxenn (aa ropaxx. B. h M. Borji;o), aa KaBKasi, bx. KpuMy, 
Bx TypKecxaai a bx loffiHoB CaOapH. Ha KaBKasi oaa Ha5.aio- 
jiaexca aa npejiropiaxx. b aa CKjoaaxx aeBHCOKaxi rop^ a 
xoiiMOBx, ao nojiuMaexca a Burae, nepexo;ifl ae saM^xao b^ 
ropao-cxeaHyio o6jiacxb. Ha c§Bep'i, cpej^a j-Icobx, oaa npei- 
cxaBjaexx KaKx.-6H ocxpoBKH bjb oasacH, pisKO oxjiaiaacb 
CBOBM^ 3oo-6oxaHBHecKBMX> TadBxycOMt OTh oKpyajanieB siicx- 
bocxb. Bx. EBpon. Poccia ci ea paBHaaatiM-B pejibeij^oMi Ka- 
Meaacxaa cxenb aadJiojiaeTca oaBHHMX. ofipasoM^ aa CMoaaxi 
ex. oSnaateHiaMB M^ja, rpySaro BSsecTaaEa BJiBMepreja (upe- 
BMy^^ecxBeBHO no jtojaaaMi b SeperaMx piKx.). 

PacxBxejbBocxb EaMeaacxafl cxena cocxobti ae xojbEo 
mi, o6u^auTh cxenaHxi bbaobx, KaKx>-xo EOBHJiefl, TaniaKa, 



— 79 — 

Koeleria, Thymus, Centaurea, Artemisia h ap., Koxopae sjs.'^ch 
pacTyT-B pasCpocaHHo, He coi^iaabHo, ho h hbt. MHoraxi jpyrnx-B 
Cojite CBoeofipasHuxT. (J)opMi (cpeaa hhxi oco6eHHoe BBHMaHie 
npHBJCKaioT'B 6o(5oBua, KaKX-To Hedysarum, acxparaaH, Ono- 
brtjchis sativa h ;i;p.); qacTo Ha Hefi noHBMiOTCfl KycTapHHSH 
(jiHEaa BHoiHa, Co6oBHHKT.,Cofe»eas^er vulgaris) h jiame OTsi.ii>- 
BHfl AepeBAa (Sepesa, ny^uzK-h, ocHHa, cocHa, adaoHS, Kaparaix, 

OptniHHKl). OlJHHHTeJIbHHMT. CBOSCTBOM^ paCTHTCJIBHOCTH KaMe- 

HHCT08 Ciena aejiaeTca ea pasp'feaeHHOCTb; OHa HHKOwa ne 
noKpHBaex^ cE.iOHa hjih xo;iMa ciuonib, a pacxexx p'6;tK0, pas- 
6pocaHHO. ocxasJiaa uesRuy OT^i'kjihBUMa aKseMMapaMH pacxenifi 
ro.ibie npoMesyxKH. IIoBepxHoexHHM'B cy6cxpaxoMi KaMCHHcxofi 
cxena aB;iiflexrH lacxo rpydaa xcMHon.BixHaa, in,e6HeBaxaa uoisa, 
vciaHBaa pas^HieoS BejHiBuu o6MUKa,uii EauaeS, noi(i eoxo- 
pi>iM« o6HKHOBeHHO H Haxo^ax^ npitoxi paaaa^HHe oSnxaxeJiH 
9To8 nHxepecHOfi cxaniH, ocodeHHO aai Mipa HacbROMHxi. 
HHorjia rpyaxi KaueHHCxoa cxena 6HBaex^ cojiorab CEa- 
jiHCXHMi (YpaJi , KasEasi , FyfiepjinHCKia ropn , Akmo- 
jiHHCK. o6ji., HfljiepcKia ropH). cocxoa se xojbEO hsx. hsbccx- 
HflKOB-b, HO H H31. 6ojite xBep;iHxx. ropHHXi nopo^t (KBapna- 
xofe'B, rpaHHxa, nop4)Hpa, cjiaHncBi h sp-)> o^HEHOBeBHo JiHmb 
ejiBa npHKpHXHXi oienb xoukhmi c-tocmx. cipoi! ho^bh hih 
sepHoseMa, a BHorjia h cobc^mi ho^xh ofiHaatCHHHXi, coiepsa 
HacxHAH noiBH Bi mejiax'b h npoMesyxKaxx. EastHefl h cEaax. 
EaMeHBCiaa cienb ocoSeaao xopomo h hojiho pasBHxa aa lort 
Easb Bi cxenHoM odaacxa, xasi h cpenH nycxHHb h ropt. Map- 
MeKO-iorHHCCEaa ^ayaa ea BectMa CBoeoSpasaa a cojepataxx bt, 
ce6i He waio xapaKxepanxi (|)opMx>, h3x>eohxx Sojibniaa ^acxb 
HecoMHiaao wffiaaro npoHCxoataeaia. Maoria h3% axaxx $opMi 
oiHaEO H^iyxT. ^jajSKo Ha cfiBepx, ni oni Bcxpiqaroxca enopa- 
jiHiecEH, H npaxoMX. xojibEO Bx cooSmecxBt a. EaMeaacxofl 
cxeubH), X. e, cjtiflOBaxejibHO Bcerjia npa ocoSaxt onpe;t*aea- 
HUX1. ycjOBiflxi. Bo^ibDiaa lacxb bh^obi MypasBeBi, maByn^Hxi 
aa EaMeaacxofi cxena, ^li^iaroxi cboh raisjia no;ti KaMaaMH, 
s% npoMemyxEaxx nex^j bhmh h wb xpen^Haaxi CEajix, 



— BO — 



Cjii^ywmie MypastH cBoflcTBeHHH BaiieHHCTofl CTena: 



Camponotus vagus 

C. saxatilis 

C. aethiops 

C. lateralis 

Lasius carniolicus 

L. eraarginatus 

L. alienus 

L umbratus 
*L. exacutus 
♦Formica uralensis 

F. pratensis 

F. pressilabris 
*F. gagates 

F. rufibarbis 

F. rufib. V. subpilosa 

F. rufib. V. glauca 

F. clara 

F, cinerea 

F. sanguinea 
*Proformica nasuta 

Pr. aberrans 

Myrmecocystus aenescens 

Polyergus rufescens 
Plagiolepis pygmaea 
*P1. pygm. V. pallescens 
Tapinoma erraticum 



Tap. nigerrimum 
*Solenopsis fagax 
*Sol. orientalis 

Tetramorium caespitum 
*T. caesp. var. ferox 

T. caesp. v. meridionale 
*T. caesp. v. forte 
*T. caesp. v. punicum 

T. inerme 
*Myrinoxenus gordiagini 

Leptothorax bulgaricus 

L. nassonovi 

L. tuberum 1. sp. 

L. unifasciatus 

L. exilis 

L. serviculns 

Myrmica scabrinodis 

M. lobicornis 

M. lobic. V. schenckii 

M. lobic. V. deplanata 

M. sulcinodis (v. nigripes) 

Messor structor 
*M. struct. V. clivoruin 
*M. tataricus 

Pheidole pallidula. 



Bcero CBHme 50 (^opwh Hsi bhx* MHOria aeMfOTca bt. 
TO^e BpejiH H ropnocTenuHMH, lacTbio ^hcto CTenuHMH, qacriiio 
nycTUHHHMH (aanpHM. Plagiol. pygmaea, Proform. nasnta. 
Myrm. aenescens, Tetram. inerme, Pheid. pallidula). XapaKiep* 

HUa ({)OpMM OTM^TOHH SBisjtOqKOfl (*). HMiMTCfl $OpMliT, CBofl- 

CTBeHHHfl KycTapuHKaMi HonyniKaMi {Polyerg. rufescens, Lept. 



— 81 — 

unifasciatus, F. sanguinea), jHCTBeHHUMi JiicaMi (Camp, va- 
gus, Las. emarginatus), necKaMx h cochobumx fiopaM'B {Form, 
cinerea, F. rvfibarhh v. suhpilosa); BCipiqaiOTca a ropHHa 
{M. sulcinodis). 

B-B pacnpocTpaHCHiH MHorHXi creaHHX'B ipo^u-b khbot- 
Huxt KaneaHCTaa cienb arpaei's 6oJihmoe sa&Heuie, ji.a.B&n hmx 
BOSMoaiHOCTb atHTb 8K3oMKHHecKH, T. 6. ^lajCKO sa npc^iiiJaMH 
HopnajiBHofl odJiacTH HXi ofiHTaaia. Maoria h31 xaKHxi $opM% 
HaSjiioflaiOTca Ha ciBtpi bi nojioci JHCTBeHHuxi JiicoBi h ;ta- 
ate cpejiiH TaftrH, rjcfe oh4 nocejaioTca HCBJH><iBTejbHO aa ckto- 
aaxi, nopocujHxx pacxeaiaMH, CBoiScxBeaHtiMH KaMeHHCTo2 CTena. 
Hmcbbo B'b ciBepHO& H cpe^taefi Eepon. Poccia a bi CaSapa, 
TaKse a bx 3ana;iHo3 EBpont loasHue CTenaue cmohh asaa- 
lOTca npeHMymecTBeHHUMi. Micxoo^HTaaieMi xaKaxx MypasbeBi, 
KaKi Tctramdrium caespitum, Form, rufibarhis, F. uralensis 
(MocKOBCK. vj6.}, F. gagates. Leptoth. tuberum, Lasius alienus, 
L. mnbratus, Solenopsis fugax, Myrmica scabrinodis, M. lo- 
bicornis. Maoria h3x nepeiacaeHHHXi ^opwb, BapoieMi, o^ho- 
BpeMCHHO CO CTenHHMH cKjioHaMBT BCxpiiaiOTca eaie a bi coc- 
HOBHXi 6opaxi, Ky^a noatexx daxb oxqacxa owh a aepeniJiH 

C'b BTBX'b CKJrOHOBl. 

Ha KaMeaacxofl ciena qacxo Bcxpiqaioxca a (|)opMM cno- 
pa/iaqecKaro pacnpocTpaaeaia {Mess, strudor var. clivorum, 
Lasius carnioUcus) a saxinx BOoSo^e MBoria toaiHHa ^opuu 
(aanp. Fheid. pallidula, Jjeptothorax semenovi, Tapinoma ni- 
gerrimum, Plagiolepis pygmaea, Prof or mica nasuta a His. 
;ip.), CBoficxBeHHua no npeaMymecxBy nycxaai. #ayHa KaMeaa- 
cxofl cxena oieab jipesaaro npoacxoatAeaia, HMiion^aa xicavH) 
CBasb cb ropeuMa ofijiacxaMB. Bt. jeABBSOByio anoxy oaa SiiJia 
pasBHxa CEJbHO. Oaa naxa. MHoria ^opuH fl,jia qepBOseiiBoi 
cxena a ;tJia cocbobuxx (JopoBi. Caifa-afe no;iyHH;ia fioabraaa- 
CTBO CBOBXi ^opMX HacxbFo B3i ropBocxenHofi o6;iacxa, HacxbH> 
0X1 nycxuaa, xasx Kasi a xa a ;ipyraa bt. jie;i;HBKOByK> 3Boxy 
BJiH (JjiHSKyio Ki Befi (5uJiB pasBBXH ropa8;?o 60^'ke qisii xeaepb. 
^ayaa Kaueaacxofi ciena bx cpe^nefi a ciBepaoM no^ocb 
EBpon. Poccia o6pe?efla aa nocxeneaHoe BUHapaaie, h6o xojimu 



82 



H CKJOHu cb oGaaaveHiflMH, rji;^ oea pasBHia, ci xeienien'R 
BpeueHH Bce Cojiie h 6orfee paspyinaioica KaKb or% ecTecTBCH- 
BHXi arcHTOBi. (Aenpaniifl, aposia), xaKi bi ocoSeueocxH h 
6Jla^o;^apa A'iaTejtbHOCTH lejioBisKa. 

B^ o6.iacTH nycTUHb, raKace bl 3aKaBKa3bfc a bi KpHJiy, 
BooCme Ha lori, KaMeHHCxaa crenb npBBHiiaen. oco6h8, 6ojihe 
lOffiHBja, nycTUHHaB xapaKrepi. h HaccjeHa r;'6,iiJMx pa;iOMi 
^opwh, BOBce He BCip'ljHaiomHxcfl Ha chBepi, a HaripoxHBx paC' 
npocxpaHeHEHxx bt. Ilepcifi, Ma.MoS AaiH, MesonoxaiiiH, Apa- 
bIh, CiBepHOfi A^pHK'h H Ha CBpoueScEOMB HoGepembH CpejiH- 
BCMHaro Mopa, h-ih Fwiiomaxx xan^ Gjihskhxi npejicxaBHxejiea. 
KaMGHHcxofi cxenn cx> xaKEMs xapaKxepoMx. upasHJibH'fce iipHjia- 
Baxb HasBaeie KaMeHucmoil nycmuHu, coxpanaBXi HasBaHie ««- 
MeHucmou cmenu sa xoB cxan;ie8, Koxopaa paaoaxa bt> o6jiacxH 
HepaoseMa h ciBepate. TaKaa KaMenHcraa cxenb-nycxwHa 
HMiexca nanp. Ha ropax'b MaJioe h BMbinoe Eofao, Ha thhco- 
Buxx xoJiMaxi OKOJio HH;iepcKaro cojieHaro oaepa, Ha MyroA- 
Kapaxx., ManrHuuaK'fe, /I^arecxaai, bx 3aKacniiicKo8 o6ji. h np. Ha 
KaBKasi OHa HesaaiixHO cjiHBaexca ci. ropHO-cxenHoio o(5jiacTbH). 

HSX ({)OpMX,, CBOfiCXBeEHHXX. 9XHMI lO^KHHMX) KaMeHHCXHMX CXe- 

naiii, HyffiHO nasBaxb: Pheidole pallidula, Myrmecocystus de- 
sertorum, Plagiol. pygmaea, Bothriom. meridionalis, Tetramo- 
rium inerme, punicum, meridionale, Leptothorax semenovi, 
Acanfholepis frauenfeldii, Proform. nasuta, Pr. aberrans, Myr- 
mecoc. albicans, Messor barharus meridionalis, M. capitatus, 
Formica clara. 

KycmapuuKoeaH cmenb cjiyataxX) hi H^KOxopoMi poA'fe npo- 
Meatyxo'iHbiM'b SBeHOM* Meacay x-bcowb a creubjo. Kxo BHj?ijix 
HamH lOHCHHe, paasHXHC bi upeA'tiaxi cxeneoS o^JiacxH jh- 
cxBCHHue Jiica, xoxs xopomo SHaexx. KaKOe rpouaAHoe pasBHxie 
HMiioxx xaMi> cxenHHe icycxapHHKH, pacxymie no onymKaM^, 
nojflHasix, OKpaHHaM% ji'Schhxx. jiopori h Ha coonaxx. jiicHux^ 
OBparoBi; 9xhmi KycxapHHKaMx., raaBHHMX ofipasoMX cocxoa- 
mHM'B H3T> ;^HKofi BBniHB, 6o6oBHHKa H Cytisus Uflorus, Bcer;i;a 
coayxcxByroxx h j^ijiMfl pa^x xpasaHHCXHXi cxeoHbixi pacxcHifl. 
M'ficxaMH ;^HKo8 BBniHH H 6o6oBH0Ka Ha noJiaHaxx h onyuiBax'B 



— 83 — 

jilcoBi. TaBi MHoro, 1T0 OU0 js.iza.WT'h Hxi noHTH Henpoxo;(H- 
MUMH. Ho CTeoHue KycrapHHKH BCTptiaioTca TaKxe nflTHawH h 
iio;ioca\iH H Ha poBHofl CTenn h aa xo;iMaxt h na CRMa&x-h, 
npaieiii 3;i'fecb ohh pasBHTu Bnojtai THnHiao h bx hhmx kpomIj 
Tpex^ BHrneyKaaaHHuxi bhjiobi npaGaBJiflfOTCa eme jipeaeea 
(Caragana frutescens), xaBOjra {Spiraea crenifoUa), ninnoB- 
HUKT, xepH^, 6oapHinHBE%, rpyiiia, a6.noHa, CepecTi., MejKO- 
pocJibifi ;iy6HaKi. 

Taicifl KycTapHBKOBO-;ipeBecHWfl sapocaa, nepejitmaHHUfl 
ex pasHOoSpasBusiii TpaBanacTUMH crenHHsiB pacxeHiajiH, pa- 
CTymHMH Jiesjji;)' hhmu hjih o6pa3yioui,HMn or^tjibHHa .lyroBUHH, 
npejcraBjatoTx raMocxoflTejiLHyio CTa^iK), OT.iHHaiomyioea KaKi 
ocoSofi rpynuHpoBKOfl cBoero Hace-neaia, xani h niKoxopuMH 
cneqiaJibHO fRoScxBCHBUMH eft ^opiiaMH. 

UsT. MypaBbCBi naHSo.ifee oSuiawMn jiJia cxai^iii cxeiiHuxx. 
KycxapHHKOBb uyiKno HasBaxb cJiiAyromaxx: 

*Polyergus rufescens F. rufibarbis 

*CampoTiotus lateralis "^Leptothorax unifasciatus 

C. acthiops *L. kirillovi 

* Formica sanguinea *L. tuberuai 

*F. uralensis *L. exilis 
*F. truncicola Bothriomyrraes raeridionalis 

F. pressilabris Solenopsis orientalis 
*F. pratensis Myrmica scabrinodis 

Ki> HUM7. lacxo eme npHCoeiHaaioxca h .npyrie Meate xa- 
paKxepnue, nMenao: Lasivs flavus, L. umhratas, L. bicornis, 
L. alienus^ L. niger, Camponotus vagus, Tapinoma erraticum, 
Myrmica scabrinodis, Tetramorium caespitum, Leptothorax 
nassonovi h jipyrie, CBoBcTBeaaiie KaMeaHcrofi hih KOBUJbHofl 
CTcae. OxMiieanue SBisioqKOfl (*) MHt Kaacyxca ocofieaHO xa- 
paKxepaiJMH. 

^ayna KycrapanKOBofi cxena xtcao CBasaaa cb ^epaoseMHO- 
KOBUJibaoH D CB KaMeHHCxofl cxenBH), T&ZT, KaET>' ona Bcer;i;a 
pasBHBaeTca cpe«H aaxTi h bi HiKOToponi pojii QOA^HHeHa 



— 84 — 

Bill, a c^ jpyroff cxopoau ona upe^cTa,RjiscT^ necoMFrfenHuS 
iiepexojii. Kf. aicy (.itcocxenb), jasaH npncTaHame TaKHiii. 
([lopnasix, KaK^ Formica truncicola, F. pratensis, Camponotus 
vagus, Camp, aethiops, U^eptothorax tiiheriim h unifasciatus, 
Koropue jtfejaiorf. raiaja b^ jcpeBb h.uh nyacaaiOTCJi b% ;i;epe- 
BsinncTuxi MarepiaJiaxf. Am nocTpo^KH c.iojkhhxt, HacunHuxi, 

Ha KaBKasb KycxapHHKOBaji cren& coctohttj hst, iinorHXT. 
cner^ia.ibHuxi. pacienifi, KaKOBU jjepata-jiepeBo, a.iiatia, a^pHKOCt 
u iip.; raii^ ofia pasBsira Bt \\zo6nmvi na cKJiOHax^ HCBKicoKHXt 
ropi) H y 0X^ no;inoavifl, na xo^mhctux^ npe;iropiHX^, no 
vmiMbflsiT) n T. x-\ M'fecraMa ona ofiHapyavUBaeri uepexo.ii ks 
HaropuoS crenH h k^ iiycrun't, (5yjiyq« eacejeea TaKHMH (})op- 
iVaiiH KaKS Formica rufib, v. cancnsica, Proformica nasuta^ 
f'heidole pallidula, Plagiol. pygmaea a ;tp. 

'Wmt. pa3aoo6pa3B']fe(i KycrapnnKOBaH h jipeBeceaa pacxH- 
xe.ihHOCTb KycxapHHKOBOfi cxeiiH, xini, 6oraie h pa3Hoo6pa3H'fe8 
eH (j)ayHa. TaKt., aanp., EycxapHHKOBaa cxenb bi y(})HMCKoii rySep- 
niit, rjit ona MicraMH xoth h oneHb pasBHxa, no coctohxx cnaouiB. 
TO.iibKO H3T, sapoc.ieJf doSoBHHKa {Amygdalus nana) MAn ji;0KoS 
Biiuinn {Prunus chamaccerasus), nacejieea oqeHS HeiiHorHMB 
(|)opiiaMH siypaBtcBi, HiieHBo: lolyergiis rufescens, Form, pra- 
tensis, F. pressilabris, F. rufibarbis, F. truncicola., Tetramo- 
rium caespitum, Myrmica scabrincdis, Lasius alienus, npaqeii^ 
MypaBefiHHKH F. truncicola h F, pratensis, odpa3yioin,ie caMtia 
KpyuHhiii H aerie sau'STeua coopyHtenifl oa 9to3 C'rena, Bcerjia 
cToaTi oTjifejitHo, Ha sHa^iHTeJibHOMi paacTOflHiH jipyrx ox^ jipyra, 
aKcn.ioaxBpya paanua o6.iacTH. Polyergus rvfescens TaMi> O'^eat 
pi^OK'b a ;sHBeT'b BMicii ci F. rufibarbis. Bi. sapocJiax^ bh- 
meannKa na noJiflHaxi. jiyrtoBux^ j'icoBii CnM(5HpCKoii ry6. $a- 
yaa MypaBieai eme Sijiaie; xaMi BcrpiqaiOTca Meat;iy npo^HMt 
xaK/Ke Lasius flavus niqer. Ecjih JKe B3axb ]i,.n& cpaBHeaia Ky- 
CTapHHKOByio cxeiib So-iie loatauxi MicxHOCxeM, HanpHit. Capa- 
TOBCKofi ryd. h.ih KasKasa, hi cocxaBi Koxopofi bxomtx KpoMt 
KycxapHHKOB'b H pasJiHiaua ^ipeBecaua iiopo;tbi (Kaparaii, a6- 
jiOHa, doapHiuHHSB, ajHia a apOj to xaiii yse acrpiqaroxcs 



— 85 — 

.lenTOTopascH (L. unifasciatus, exilis, tuberum), ^lepnue Me;iKie 
itaMnonOTycja (Camp, lateralis, aethiops), Bothriomyrm. meri- 
dionalis (na KaBKasij), cojcHoncBCTj, ne cqBTaa pas-iaiHuxi. 

Cowm^bi H coAOHuaKOoaH cmem pasfipocanu ocTponaMB bt. 
of)jiacTH CTcnen Cjiush ea k);khoS rpaHBiiK, a co;iohi];m Epoji'Ij 

TOrO TaKJKC H Bl> 06.ia.CTB nyCTHHI). OcTpOBKB 9TH O^HKHOBeHHO 

HeSojibinEfxi pa3MipoBT> h Bcero qame npiypoqeHH k% co;iaHrjM^ 
osepaMi. y^acTKH cojiOBuoBaTofi cxenB fcioaiiu OKpya^afOTca 
ne TOJBKo cienasin, ho Hep'fe;iKO xaKsie rpaHBHarx z ci, .i-bcuuB, 
pacno.iaraacb na onyuiKaxx h nojianaxi. (nanpHM.. okojo SaH- 
pa-inux's -itcKOBi CapaTOBCKofl ry6.). KpoMlj cnen,ia;itno hmi 
CBoBcTBCHnoH ^aynu, na hhxi. o6uiho saxoiaxi. h Apyrie sum 
CO Ciena. Co.aoHyaEOBaa cieni. npejicTaB-iaeii nepexojHyio cia- 
jliio iiex.jiY HepnoseiiHOfi crenbH) h co.ionnaMH. Ona a^-kefh 
BBjii TpaBanncTuxi) npocrpancTBi, pasBHXuxi na noico.iOHKaxi 
H coiioHii,OBaxuxi> HepHosesiax^. Bl bocxohhoM Poccia (Capa- 
xoBCKaa, CajiapcKaa, OpenSyprcKaa ry6.) h bT) 3aaa;iH. Ch6hph 
xaKia npocTpancTBa necbua bcpIjakh. 

PacTfixejiiHuJi tioKpoBi) cojoHqeBaToH cxena cocxoHX'b hsx 
cmIjcb ibcxo cxennuxx xpani cb cojiOHqaKOBUMH. ^ayna ea 
xo'/KC cM'tmannaa, cocxoamaa ee xDJibKo hsi cneqiajbHHXx 
"incxo cojiOHMaKOBHXT. 4'opMx, HO xaKate h hbi o^wKBOBennbixi 
cxennuxx hjb nycxuHHUx^ (Flagiol. pygmaca), a paBHO h hst. 
<})opMi pasjHHHaro xapasxepa wfecTOoCBTaHia. UpHcyxcxBie cxen- 

HHXl H nyCXHHHHXl $OpMl .lePKO oSiaCHBXb na CO.IOHHaKOBOH 

cxeQH, TaKT> KaKx ont saxojtax^ xy^ia h3x coc'fe;iHHxi, nenocpeA- 
cxBCHHo OKOJto HHXI. jejKamHXii yqacxKOB^ qepHOseiiHOi! cxena hjjh 
rjiHHBCxofi nyCTUHB. Haxoataeeie-ave Ha cojiOHqaBOBHXi CTe^ax^ 
cojonqaxT. $opM^ pasHoxapaKxepnaro ofiBxaaia BuacHBXb ;io- 
BOJibHo xpy^iHo; ki, xaKHM^ 4)opMaMx iip0ea;t.aeffiaTi. aanp. Las. 
niger h Las. flavus, npeACxaBJiaK)u;ie npeo6.ia;iaionufi ajejaeHX'B 
HaccjeHJa cojiOHqaKOBuxi yMacxKOBi. Do bxomv noBo;iy Hyatao 
Boofiu^e 3aM'£xHXb, hxo H'tKOxopue MypaBbH oxjiaiaioxca qpesBH* 
^agHofi aenpaxoTJiHBOCTbio hi BH6opi MtcxooSaxaHia, cnoco6- 
flO(XbH) npacnocoSjiaxtca kx. paBJiBHHHMi atHSHGHEHMX. ycJiOBiaM'b. 



— 86 — 

TaKOBH, HanpHM., Lasius flavus, L. niger, Mifrmica laevino- 
dis, Tetramorium caespitum, orqacTH Formica rufibarbis, 
F. fusca, Las. alienus h h. ;ip. UpHiHea 3to2 oco(5eHHOCTH 
.lewHTi Mcatviy npoHHM-B b^ ywoBiaxi. hx^ cortiajiBHoa jkhsbu, 
BT. HXt KpaSaeft yMipeHHOcxn ao OTHoraeniio kt. naniH, wh hxi 
TpvjiojnoGiH H eme Bt tomi, qxo ohh coajHxe.JibCTByiOTTj ct. pas- 
.luqnuMH BHjiaiin ;ipyrHXT> atHBOXHHXi, KOTopuxx HCKycno y&ii' 

lOT-B HCnO.lbSOBaTt B^ CBOHX% BUFOJiaXl, Hanp. Cb m.lHMU. U.0- 

CJiijiaiH, jiocTaBjflfl siypaBbaMX. neoCxojHMyio nniuy cbohmb 
ncapa/KHenifliiH, caMH nHxaioTca coKaiia pasJHMHHXi pacxeein, 
ee xpe6ya nuKaKoro oco6eBHaro yxojia sa co6o8 co cxopoiiu 
nypaBbeBL. Tas^, Las. flavus, nOBB^iiiiiOMy, uHxaexca hckjiiomh- 
xejbHo Ha ciexi r.ieS, asjaacb bx> jaHHOMi cjiy^a-i xHauHHuiii 
MOflO(|)arosi%; atHBii ex. cbohxx. xojiMHKaxX), ohx HBKor,>ia ne bh- 
xojHXT, HapyHty, — 3xo coBepmeeHO no;t3es]Hbifi a^Hxe^b, nepiKH- 
mia y ceSa b^ raisAaxx. x-iefl sa KopHaxx. pacxenifi. Lasius 
niger, HanpoxHBX., oKasHBaexca naciojitKO-ate nojiseMHaMi, khki 
H Hajsejinuxx. aiHxejieMX., jtaace nocjthjiHHMi b^ (JOJbuiefi cxe- 
ncHH; Xjiefi y ce6a bi jiypaBefiHHKi ohx He Bcer;ia nep^ari,, a 
npcjiaoiHxaexx. iiocin^axb axaxx. aaao noABaKnaxx. HacfeKOnuxi 
Ha jiepcBbaxx. ii xpaBaHBCXHXx. pacxeniaxi h cofiapaib cx> hhxt. 
CBOK) ;iaHb, coBepmaa 9Ty pa6oxy ne xo^ibKO ;iHeMx, ho xaKxe 
H B-B xHxia^ xea;iHa hohh. CxojiBace ycepjiHO Eochmaioxx x.aefl 
Ha pacxefliaxTj Myrmica laevinodis, Formica rufibarbis h 
F. fusca. 

Bx. oSmeMx, BxexaKB ^ayna C0J[0H^0B■b h co;iOH'}aKOBOfi cxe- 
nn ^OBOJibHO 6i;iHaa. Bx cocxaeX) ca Bxo,'iaxi c.)ii;iyioui,ia ^'opsiu: 

*Lasius flavus F. rufibarbis 

L. fl. V. odoratus *F. rufib. v. glauca 

L. bicornis v. affinis F. cinerea 

L. mixtus Myrmecocystus aentscens 

*L. niger M, tancrei 

L. alienus Solenopsis orientalis 

Formica pratensis Sol. orient, y. kasalinensis 

F. pressilabris Tetramorium caespitum 



87 



Myrmica laevinodis M. rugulosa 

*M. bergi Plagiolepis pygmaea 

M. scabrinodis *Cardicondyla stamb. v. ko 
*M. scabr. v. lacustris shewnikovi 

*M. scabr. v, salina 

'SBiSAOHKO^ OTMiieHH xapaKTepHUfl ^opMU. 

KoHeiHO cociaB^ ^avHH coaoHu,OBT. H cojiOHn,oBaTuxi cTe- 
neB Bi pasHuxi MicTHOCTsxT. Poccia paajiHieai hi aasHCH- 
MOCTH OT* xapaExepa bxt. pacTHieiibHOCTH, KoaaiecxBa coji,ep- 
ataflia BjiaKHOCTH h coJiefi, TaKJite h reorpa^aieCKaro nojoace- 
Hia. C-feBepHue cojiohuh mo6m,e Sinate ^opMauH loatHuxx. ^as. 
cojrOHi^eBi. BT. 3a^a;^H0fi ChShph xapaKiepHH mhpmhkh (Myrm. 
scabrinodis var. salina, var. lacustris). ^ayaa coaoHn,OBi ok- 
pecTHOcrefi Capenxii OKaaaJiack oichb oparHaaaBHofi; TaMX a 
namejT. cji'6;nyiom0xi MypaBbeB^: Lasius flavus i. sp., var. 
odoratus, L. affinis, L. niger, L. alienus, Form, rufibarbis, 
Solenopsis orientalis, Tetramorium caespitum, Plagiolepis pyg- 
maea, Myrmica scabrinodis, M. bergi, Gardiocondyla koshew- 
nikovi. aiHjiH OHH laMt ax aemiflBHXx xo.iMaKax%, npaieMx ex 
GojitBiHBCTBb cjiyqaesi o;^Ba'b a TOTX-se xoimhkx aaceJieat 
6uJix aicKOJiLKaMB ^opMastH. Hsx yKasaaaaxx ^o^wh doaBoiaa 
nacTb aa cbBepHuxx coJioan.ax'B ae BCTpiqaexca. Toabko La- 
sius niger a flavus aBaaiOTca cnyTaaKaua BcsKaxi cojiohaobx 
aeaaBHCHMO oti. hxx xapaKxepa a reorpa(J)a<iecKaro noaoateaia. 

Bee aacejieaie jiypaBteBX aa cojioaqoBaTHxx jiyraxi a 
coaoaaaxx bx ^OJH.raaacTB'fe cjiyiaeex cocpewTOiasaeTca bx 
seMMBHxx xo.iMBKaxx, npeacTaBjiaroataxx Haxepecaoe aBJieaie 
coiiiajibBHxx ^a*3;^x. Bx axaxx xojiMHBaxx, BpopoeTaioBi,BXx 
caepxy xpar,ofl, atasyxx pasaaqaae nem MypaBteax ex pasaHiiH 
aijiaMH: ojjBH BX KaqecTB^ aacxoaaiaxx xosaeBX 0.10 bcxbbbhxx 
CHM(JioBTOBX, jupyrie KaKX apocxHe cocfejta, xpexBB ex i^-fijiaMB 
xBni,BB?ecK0M0 a bopobckbmb (iiaap. Solenopsis). FjiaBBaa-ffie 
poax 3A'6cB noB0;i;aMOMy npaaaweatBTx jiasiycaMx, ocoCeaao 
ateaxojjy aasiycy, Epafiae xpyjoJiioCaBOMy a aesaBacBMOMy, ko- 
xopufi no Bcefi aipoaxHocxa a aBjaexca nepBoaaHajiBauMx ycxpoa- 



— 88 — 

Te.ieMl, 9THXT. XOJIMHEOBl.. Co.lOHqaKOBUfl npOCTpaaCTBa B'I. dVOWh 

oTHOiueriiH cxo;ihu ct JiyrajiH p'liiHuxi nomm; a xaMt h 
Tyrr, miCJio .lasiycoBuxi. xoMiaKom,, Jieatamax't OMCUb oihsko 
ojiHHi. oTi. jipyroro, lacTO SuBaexi, rpoMa;iHO. TaKt bt. oKpecxH. 
Capenru (b^ 1905 r.) Ha ojiHOiii co.ionAOBaTOM7.jyry a nacin- 
TUBa.ii) B7. pasnuxx yqacTKaxi ero na 9 kb. caaceHjaxi on. 8 

JIO 27 MVpaBbHHUXT, XCIMHKOBI, UTO Ha OAHOS ;ieC}lTHH'Ij co- 

CTaBHTl, lipu()JH30TeJIbHO OTL 2130 JIO 7200 XOJMHKOBi; a Ha 

OjiHofl KBajipaTHoi! Bepcii oti 222000 jio 750000. Bi. jiOAwa-h 
]). CBiflTH H nc/iyiaau. ne iieBbmia VHC.ia. B% OKpocTHOCxaxi 
r. KpacHoy(j[)HMCKa iipo({). A. 3. F o p ji a r h h x HaciHTUBUJiT, 
40 MypaBcSHHEOBT) (nacejieDHiJX'i. rjaBHUMx oSpaaoM'i. Las. 
flavus H L. nigcr) Ha 100 KBa;i. caajeHflxt, mto Ha KcajipaxH. 
Bepcxy cocxaBHTx, 100000. Bi CapaxOBCKofi ry6. (Cepjio3cKi3 
H Ba.?[aiuoBCKiH yi3,3,u) T. II. Topji'heBi. (879) npHBOiaxT. 
25 xojisiHKOBT. Tix'L-a;e iiypaBteBX aa 10 kb. iiexpoBx. Hjia 
250000 Ha 1 KH.ioiiexpx. (na Moicpuxx C0Ji0Hii,axx. h cojiOHn,o- 
BaxHXi Jiyraxx.) '). 

B.iaKHOCTB Micxa oieBH;i;ao ^pe;^cxaBJIfleT■I. BaatHoe yciOBie 
;tJia nocejeHia xaEHX'i. uypaBbeBt KaK'i. Lasius flavus, L. ni- 
(jer H Myrmica laevinodis. Ha cyxHxi co.TioHU,eBaxHXi cxenaxi 
ABa iiepBuxi oyeHb pij^KH, a noc.ai;iHaa coBciM-B ne Bcxpt- 
Haexca; xoiho xaKse hxi Hixi. Ha MepHoseMHofi a KaiaenBcxofi 
cxena. CoAepa?aHie cojieS bx. noHBi B^poaxHO 3;i'£ci> nrpaext 
BTopocTencHHyK) po.ib. HpacyxcxBie ate bx QojtuieH hju iieHb- 
niefi cxeneiiH BJia/KHOCxa HM'teix, HaaCioJiBiHee SHaieHie npa bu- 
Cop'i M^cxa noceJieHia y BumeHasBaHHuxB iiypaBBeBX.. Toate 
O'leBH^tno HyfltHO CKasaxt h npo Myrmica hergi, KOTopyio a bx. 
OKpecTHOcxaxi CapenxH hh pasy ne BCxpixHJii na r.!iHHHCToH 
nojiiUHHofl nycTUHi, ocxaiome2ca 6ojibmyio lacxb Jiixa cyxofi h 
xBepJ^oS KaEi KaiieEb. ^xo-ace Kacaexca Haxoat;teHia bi xo-hmh- 



') OaHaqeHuue jojimbkh ci pasHooOpasHHin. uaceaeiiieMi MypaBtuBi 
npe,!;cTaBJiaH)ii MHoro CBoeofipasHHxi 6io.(iorH?ecKHxt ocofieHHocTeft, uo 3Atcb 
a He Mory BjasaTBca bx noflpoOHocTH h CyAY o(5x hhxx roBopHTB ei apyroMt 
MicTt. 



89 



Kaxx Ha coJOHqax-B Cardicondyla, Plagiolepis h Solenopsis, 
MorymHXT. ffiHTB H Bx nycTHHi H Ha KaMCHHCToB creaH, to a 
jyMaio, qTO s^'fecb bi rH'fcsMxx JiasiycoBi bth MypasbH noce- 
jiflioTca Bi KaqecTBi KJienToSioHTOBi h JiecioSioHTOBx. 

Ha MOKpux^ sJiBixi cojioeii;axi> oSeTacT^ ropasjio Menbine 
MypaBBCBT), i4mi Ha co-iOHiiOBartixi Jiyraxi 0.10 CTeaaxi; TaMi 
(OpenfiyprcKaa ry6., TodojibCKaa) Bcipi^aioTca tojibko sKejiiuM 
TCMHofiypHS JiasiycH, Myrmica scabrinodis \. salina la- 
custris. 

CpaBBHrejiBHoe oorarcTBo (|)opMaMH MypaBteBx ctipaxi co- 
jroHii,OBHXi. JiyroBi cpe;t0 oohhctoS noJinnHofl nycTiiHH o6i>- 
aCHaeTca 6oJiie fiaaronpiaTHHMH ux-h aiosHeHHHMH ycJtoBiaMH: 
OH0 flBjiaiOTca HacToam0MH oasHcaMH cpe^H Kpafine 6iAH08 ikr- 
3HtK), jiHmeHBofi vfh ji'iTHi'e Mi&can;H hohth BcaKOfi pacTHieji.- 

HOCT0 nyCTHHH. 

HHTepecHo oTM-feTHTb p.isjiH'iic Bt oTT-iHKax'b cTpoeaia cjO/K- 
Huxb rnisAt y c^opMi, UHKJia Formica rufa Bt .u-iscy h na crenH. 
rH-t3;ia 3THX'b 4>opMT= (F. pratensis, truncicola), kski, H3B-tcTH0, 

COCTO;iT-b HSTj nOA3eMHofi HaCTH, HM-ilOUieH BHAt BOpOHKH, 

HanojiHCHHofl r.iasHUMT, odpaaoMij o6jio.MKaMH cieGjiefl, h na^- 
seMHofl Bt BKji-is HacunHoro KOHyca, cocTasjieHHaro npeHMv- 
mecTBeHHO h3l p^sjihhhuxt. pacTBTejibHuxTj jiaTepiajioBTj (cpe^H 
KOTopiJXi. cTe6jiH oSuKHOBCHHo npeoSjia^aiOT'h) ; Kposi't xoro bo- 
poHKa cHapyjKH 0Kpy?KaeTC>i KOJibucBUMt aajiOMb h3t. buhc- 
ceHHOfi 3eMJin. Baji-b a-roTi. 6uBaeTb 5o.ii'fee pasBHTi. y cren- 
HUXT, TH-fesA^ H Haxo;iHTca coBepiueHHO HapyjKH, HHKoraa ne 
6yjiyHH npHKpuTT. HacunnHM-b kohvcomt.; y ji'tcHHxi.-)Ke rn-fesA-b 
OHT, Boo6me Menbuae h saKptiT-b HacHnHtiM-K KOHycoMT.. Bt. axOM'b 
saKJiiOHaeTCfl tjisbhoc pasjiHnie rH'isA'b Ji'fecHux'b ofb cxenHHXT.. 
KpoM-fe Toro BT> .TfccHHXT) rH-fesAaxT. HacHnHofi KOHycb Bcer^a HM-t- 
exca II xopouio pa3BHXT,, Aocxara^ HHor^a 3aaHHxejibHHXT> pa3Mi- 
poBT.. Btp iH-tsaaxb jkc aa cxenH Koaycb pasEHfi cjiaSo h 6ojib- 
meio vacxbK) bobcc oxcyxcxByexT^, xaKi. hxo nosepxHocxb BopoHKH 
npe^cxaBJiflexb raaAKyio, poBnyio njiomaAKy, HHor^a Aawe cjierna 
BorHyxyio. Hs^aJiH xame MypaeeflHHKH He bhjihu. KpyroBoft Bajit 
y HHXT> 3apacxaex-b cKpinJiasomefl ero TpasHHHCxoft h KycxapaHKOBOft 
pacxHxejibHOcxbK), Koxopaji Hep-iAKo AOcxHraexi. snaHHxejibHoft bu- 



— 90 — 

COTU H rycTOTij, coBepmeHHO CKpuBaB MvpaBCHHHKb 0TT> rjiaai, Ha- 
6jiK)jxaTe.iH H AocraBviaa o6HTa'rejiflMi> xaKoro rH-ksAa ojiaroiliTeab- 

HVIO T-hHb. Ec.lH MVpaBeflHHKT. CTOHTt Ha KpyiOMb CKJlOH-is XOJlMa, 

TO qacTb KpyroBoro Bii.ia, o6pameHHa>i Kb ocHOBaHiio cK.iona, SuBaexi, 
oRbiKHOBeHHo SHaHHTCJibHO Cojifec pa3BHTa, KaKT>-5bI noAOHpaa CHHSy 
rHisAO, 6.iaroAap>i mcmv njiomajiKa, npHKpuBaioiua« BopoHKV, co- 
xpaHjieT'b ropn3onTajibiioe noJiO/Kenie. PasBHiie aapy/KKaro Konyca 
BT. j-tcHuxb rH-t3Aax-b o5'bacH>ieTC}i: bo 1-x-b) oOHJiiewb HacunHoro 
Marepiajia, HaxoAamaiocH Bceriia TVX'b-we noS.THaocTH, BCJi'fejcTBie 
Hero SHaiiHxejibHO oSjiernaexc^ xpyji-b MvpaBbHM-b no AOcrasK't atoro 
Maxepiajia, bo 2-xt>) nocxonHHOio BJia-zKHocxbio, Haxo^Hiueioca bt> ji-fecy 
H ST. oco6eHHOcxn Bij JitcHofi iiOHB-fe, 'iTO H no6y)KJaeTt MypasbeBT. 
noAUMaxb Buiue KOHyci h A'tjiaxt BHytpH ero Kawepu, OHeHbxopouio 
H y4o5Ho BeHTH.iHpyexiHa; Bb 3th KaMepu Bb HSBbcxHoe BpcMH 

BUHJCaXCM KOKOHU H .IHHHHKH. SaT^M-b BT. JI"fccy HapVWHUft KOHyCTj, 

KaKt-eu oH-b HC 6ujn> BejinK^b, btj occ6eHHOCxn ccjih rH'fesAO no- 
M-tiuaeTCji BT. naui't Jilsca, ae xaKX seMTbxeHTj, KaK'b 3X0 HM-i3Jio-6u 
M-icTO Ha cxenH. SHaqeaie KpyroBoro Bajia btj rH-feanax-b, cxoaiUHXTi 
Ha cxenHuxT. CKJionaxb, saK.nioHaeToi eaie h Bt xoM-b, hxo oH'b ripc- 
Aoxpanaex-b MvpaBcflHHKb oxtj pasMusa AOyKACBUviH BOAaMH. Ox- 
cyxcxBie-zKe hjih caance paasnTie HapV/KHaro Konyca y cxenHbixt 
xH-fesA'b o6b>iCHHexca oxnacxH xaK>KC 6'tAHOCXLK) AepeBAHHCxuxT. 
MatepiajioBTj Ha cxenH h garpyAHHTejibHOcxbm ajih MypaubeBi. H3'b 

ACCXaBKH. 

n y e T bi H H. 

06.!iacTb nycmuHh saHHMaexx rjiasHMMx ofipasoMx SanajHyw 
H ciBepHVK) lacTH Typana. IlycTKiHBUfl npocTpancTBa trm-b rpyn- 
napyioTca orojio KacniHcKaro Mopa, ApajiBCKaro h Baaxama, 
npocT0paacb oti EpreHefl w Tap6oraTaa, ki cfesepy jjoxojia 
^0 Typraa h ^earHsa, ea lorife orpaHHiHBaacb npe^tijiaMH IlepciH 
H ABraHHCTana, Ha BOCxoKi ohh yxo^aTi bo MoHroJiiK). Ha 
sana^i.'fe oSjiactb nyciUHt saxeaTUBaeTX loroBOCToqHHfi yroai Esp. 
Poccin (KHpraacBaa a KaxMuuKaa cTeob), sax^Mi TaHCTca no 
sanaAHOMy nofiepeatLio KacniacKairo Mopa, BAaaaacB bx ofiJtacTH 
6acce2Ha Kypn bi SaKaBKasbe (Kapa(5axcKaa CTcnb). OxjHqaacb 
KpafiHea 6i;^H0CTbH) oca^KOBX, ^epsBHqafiHot cyxocTiio B03;iyxa, 



-- 91 ~ 

(5oJibinnMH aaMHTyAaMH TeMaepaTypu (ch-ibuhmh aiapaMH JitroMi 
H MoposaMH sHMofi), ooJiacTb 3Ta no cBoeuy o6meMy xapaEtepy 
H (5iojior0>iecKHMT> yejiouiflMi> pass'^JfletCH aa jsa pasjHHHue 
THna: 1) lAunucmym hih cifhiuHucmyio, co.iomieeamyio no.mu- 
uyto nycmuHH) a 2) neCHanyio nycmbiHio. 

XoTa MHpMeKoi{)ayaa HaaIHX^ EycTBiHb eme Majio HByneHa, 
T'iMT. He nenie mu movkcm^ CKasaib, ito rJiaBBHMH oSaTaxejiaMH 
nycruHb hsb MypaBbCBi. asaioTca ntKOtopue KaMnoHoiycH (waBH. 
o6pa30M^ pacu uajia Campon. maculatus, KaKOsu Haap. C. 
xerxes, C. turkestanicus h ap.), XBmHue, npoBopaue MypaBbH- 
CiryoKH {Myrmecocystus setipes *), iesertorum, fcreli, pallidus 
H ;ip.), H-fesoTopue MOHOUopiyMH n aeeaoracTepH h3i> po;ioB'i 
Isclinomyrmex h Messor. Ha bcSxi axHxi Mypasbaxi nycTwaa 
KJiaiex^ CBOfi oco(5uS OTnenaTOBi. HtKOtopue h3% hhxi o6Jia- 
^aioT^ cnei;ia.3bHHMH npHcaocodjeaiaMH ;tja atasHH ei aycTHH'6 
(umanua nora, ch.hho pasBHTua lueTHHKH na rojiCHaxi, bojo- 
CKH Ha HHJKHefi noBep\:BOCTH rojoBu, oxpaaHTejibHaa OKpacKa). 
OjiHH flBjawTca XHui,HHKaMH, ;ipyrie, nanpoTHBi., no npeaMy- 

meCTBy sepHOSAHU. HeoSxOffHMO OTMtTHTb TaKTKC no^TH noJiHoe 

OTcyxcTBie b^ (Jtayai uycTHaa npeitcTaBHTeieS po^OB^ Formica, 
Lasius H Myrmica, ctojih oouBHOBeHHuxi bt. Jiicaxi a cxenax^. 
KpuJiaTbia (|)0pMu y oQaTafomaxx nycTWHto MypaBbCBi o^ubho- 
BeHBO noaBJiatOTca paaaefi bocho^, Eor^a a ca&ia MypaBba bo- 
o6iii,e 6uBaH)T% Haadojite A^areJbHu. FHisAaTca iiypaBba bs ny- 
CTuai HCKJioqaieJibHO bi scMJib, bx rjiyfioKaxT. HOpaxi. 

rjiHHBCTafl, co.ioBi;eBaraa, nojiuHHaa nycruHa HaqaaaeTca 
y Baci. OTx CapeaTU a hactx ki KacniHcKOMy Mopio bx Kap- 
rHBCKyfo cieub a TypraflcKyio ofijiacTb. Bxa ^J^ocKo-o;^aoo6pa3Haa 
aasueHHaa paBHana ch rjiaaacxoa KamxaaoBaro uaa KamxaaoBO- 
ciparo i^Bixa no'iBufl, nopormaa pj^jtRBua sycTBEaMH tcmhoS 
aoJiKiHa a cojaHsaMH, cio6mapHUMa coaoui^aMa aBOKaesoEHHa 
sapocMMa. Paaaett BecaoB ona oataBjaexca KpacasHMH i^BixKaiiH 



') 3ac;iyxBBaHiTi BUHMaaia HUTepecHBfl vi6av>xtma npo$. B. 4&ayeeKa 
(939) uan-b oAHofl pasnOBUAHOCTbD SToro uypaBia (t. turcomanicus) bi Saia- 
cniftcRofi ofijiacTU. 



92 



Tro.ibuaHOBi H KHnaxi. cuoeodpasnOK) xoponjiBBOio acHBOTHOio 
atHSHhio, li^ TeqeHie se .itra h occhh npe^iCTaBjaerx ueia.iB- 
Hvro Seaatnsiiennyio paniiHay. <I'ayHa en cpaBnHTe.iBao 6-kji.aa. 
u o,inoo5pa3na. Han5ojbe xapaKTCpnuMH ea upcMcraBHTejiflMa 
flBJHFOTca jiinepHHtJ (Eremias velox, Erem. arguta, Agama 
snngidnolenta, PhnjnocepMlus heJioscopus), cipaa ra;iiorta 
(V/pera rhenardi), nycTUHHHO op.iu (Aquila orientalis, A. 
glitschi), cafiraKi, pasJiaHuaH capan^enufl, CBoeoSpaSHue HyKH, 
navKH H ;ip. 

list siypaBbeBi. WHeacTO nojbjanoJf nycTunfe CBoHcTBeHHU 
c.itiiyioiij,ie: 

*Acantlio]epis fraiienfcldii 
*A. f'rauenf. v. arnoldovi 
*PlagioIepis pygmaea 
Tetramorium caespitum 
Myrmica rugosa v. kirgisica 



IjRsius alienus 

L. alien, v. lasioidos 
*Myrniecocystiis aenesceiis 
"M. tancrei 
*M. desertorum 
*M. setipes v. turkonianicus *Myrm. stangeana 



*M. altisquamis 
*M. altisquam. v. jakobsoni 
*M. foreli 
*M. albicans 

*Camponotus turkestanicus 
*C. xerxes 
Solenopsis orientalis 

iiBisitoiKOH oriibwHU xapaKTepHBia ({)opMiu. 



*Messor structor 

M. lubuliferus v. excursionis 
*M. capitatus v. aralocaspius 
*M. cap. V. meridionalis 
*M. cap. V. semirufus 
PCardiocondyla stambulovi 



Ha r.aHHnCTOfi uyCTraQ'6 raEate ncxpiqaiOTCa H-feKOTopwe 
MypaBbH, CBoficTBeaeHe KaMeHHCToS cxena, HanpaM. J'roformica 
nasuta, Koxoparo a Hanie.ii" bx, oKpecxHocxax^ Capeiixu raisffa- 
ni0Mca Bx. ;i()BOJLHo 60JIBUJOMX. Ko.iHiecxBt. ea yHacxEi t^ihhbctoS 
nycTUHH. iiopocmeMX. itycxaMH xamapHBca. 

'I>ayaa necHauou nycmuHU bi. cpaBueaia cb rjiHHHCxoM 
OT^iHiaexca ropasjio 6ojibm0Mx> paaaoodpaaieMi, 1x0 EOHe^HO 
HaxoAHTca Bx CBSSH ex. 6oJi'fee Soraxoi! pacxaxeabHocxtio, npacymefl 
necKaMi. Oaa HSi-fiexx. ae Majio Becbwa xapaKxepaax^ $opMX. 



93 



VlsT, iiypaBbeBx kx TaKHMt (J)opMaMi npHHaAJieataTx: 

Myrmecocystus pallidas Tetramorium caespitum v. 
M. altisquamis v. jacobsoni meridionale 

Camponotus marginatus Leptothorax satunini 

ruzskii Cardiocondyla elegans v. 
C. tiirkestanus uljanini 

Formica clara C. bogdanovi 

F. rufibarbis v, subpilosa Monomorium salomonis 

F. cinerea v. imitans Mon. gracillimum 

Cremastogaster subdentata Mon. barbatulum 

S ilenopsis deserticola Pheidole pallidula v. are- 
Mjrmica rugosa v. kirgisica narum 

M. bergi v. barchanica Solenopsis deserticola 

O^Hi H3X 8THX'£. (popMx CBoacTBeHHH no.iBHacHiJXi. 6apxaa- 
HHM^ necKaMi, (Hanp. Myrmec. pallidus, Monomor: barbatulum), 
jipyria npejino^HTaioTTi necEH ynjoTHeHHHe, yate ORpiaraie 
(Hanp. KaMnoHOTycu, Form, dara, Myrmica bergivw.harchanica^ 
Cardiocondyla ip.). Csepxi Toro wh o6jiacTb necKOBi saxo- 
sax't II ;ia/Ke uoceJiaroTca xaMi: Myrmec. aenescens, M. tancrei, 
M. albicans, M. desertorum, Messor structor, meridionalis h 
jtp., Campon. turk(stanicus, Lasius alienus, Tetramor. semi- 
laeve v. schmidti. 

KpoM'6 Toro o6iacT0 nycTuat ein,e npHHa^JieKaTi.: Tetra- 
morium schneideri, T. striativente, T. nticuUventre, Messor 
capitatus v. sorokini, Cr. subdentata v. flavicapilla, Camp, 
fedtschenkoi, C. dlchrous v. ferganensis, IschnomyrmezrhapM- 
diiceps, ho xapaKiepi hxx MtcTOoSaTaHia nani bx toihocth 
ocTaeTca noKa He BSBicTHaMi. 

EaMCHucmaH nycmbtHH HM^exi. bi odmcMi TOTVffie xapaK- 
Tepi KaKTi H KaMOHHCTaa cienb; oHa o6Aa,fl.^e'V'b tojibko 6ojte 
SoraTofl H pasHooOpaaeofi (J)ayHofl, bi. cocTasi KOTopofi Bxe^tsTt 
nonpeaiiyn^ecTBy loatHHa $opMM. Oi^iijiaTi. ee ptsKO oxi Kawe- 
HHCTOfi CTeuH HC-iBsa; M0ffieTi-6HTi. MTRe npaB0JibH§e 6hjo (3h 
coeAHHBTb jix-h. MeaiAy ABywa bthmh ciai^iaMH cymecTByeT-B i^i- 
jiEifi pa^i nocTeneHHHXi nepexo;ii;oBi. EaueHHCTaa cteni no- 



— 94 



Mtp-fe esi ;tBHseHifl kb lory, qro ocoleHHO xopoaio aaMtxHo na 
rpaHtmb nepHoaena h rjBHHCxoa nycruBH, iipHHHMaexi Bce Cojiie 
H Co-iie nycTUHHufi xapaKxepi, npHqeiui. xaKia Co-ite ctBepBHa 
^opiiu ea, KaK^ Form, rufibarhis, Lasius umbratus, Myrmica 
scabrinodis, lobicornis, Form, sangiitnca, Form, pratensis h 
Ap. nocxencHHO Hcqeaaioxi., CMtHJiacb Ooite kukhijmh (aanpHM. 
Tetramor. inerme, Froform. nasuta, Leptoth. semenovi, Mes- 
sor strudor, Campon. lateralis a ji]).), na ixo a yjKe yKasuBajn 
(cm. cxp. 82). BooCJme ({)opMu MvpaBies^ uaiieHncToH nycTHHH, 
Kasi H pacTHxe.ibiiocxb ca, 6o.ite ccocoSpasHu h xapaKxepsH. 
MfloriH H3T. HHx^ Ha jipyraxt M-fecraxB oSmaHia Boece ae 
Bcrpfcqaioxca. 

lUi. ({)opMi^ CBoScxBeHBUxi) KaiienncxoS iiycxunn, HyiKHO 
r.iaBHHMx oOpasoMi, VKasaxt CJitjiyioiunxT:: 



? Camponotns inter.jectus 

Lasius alienus 

L. alien, v. lasioides 

Formica clara 

Proformica nasuta 
?Pr. aberraiis 

Myrinecocystus albicans 

M. aenescens 

Acantholepis frauenfeldii 

Plagiolcpis pygmaea 

Tapinoma nigerrimum 
? Cremastogaster lacstrygon 

Cr. sordidula 
? Solenopsis deserticola 

Tetramorium caespitum v. 
jneridionale 

T. caesp. v. punicum 



?T. cacsp V. reticuliventre 

T. semilaeve 

T. inerme 
?T. striativintre 
? T. schneideri 

Leptothorax semenovi 

Aphaenogaster testaceopilosa 

Messor structor 

M. barbarus 

M. capitatus 

Cardiocondyla elegans 
?Monomorium venustum 

Pheidole pallidula 

Ph. megacephala 

Myrmica stangeana 
PIschnomyrmex rhaphidiiceps 



Ti, KOTopua noKa iipe;ino.ioa{(neJibHo saneceaM ai jiaHHufi 
cnHcoKi, OTifiqeHU saaKOMi (?). Cpe;in nepeiHCjeHHEixi (j^opjix 
MHoria 6e3x conHiHia 3aso;iaxi btj r.!i0HHCxyK) nycxHHio H 



— 95 — 

Bx neciaHayio; H-fesoTopHa BcrptiaiOTca h cisepHie, aa KaMCHH- 
CTofl cxeuH HJH Ha jipyrHx^ M'fectoHaxoK;teHiflXi (nanp. Lasius 

alienus) . 

ropHHH OOjiaCTH. 

He Meaie CBoeo6pa3Hofi ^aynoa sace^ieHU h ropHHa cipaHH, 

HMGHHO BT> HXT. BepXHHXl HaflGo.lie BHCOKHX^ o6JIacTax^. He 

CMOTpH Ha KpaftHee pasHOoOpaaie m, 6ioJiorHiecKOMX OTHoraeHia 
pa3;IH'^HHX^ paSoROBt ropi., He CMOTpn na to, ^io B^ npe;^'feJIax^ 
ropHoS nfi.iacTa mh BctptiaeMT. pasaae noaca pacTHTej[BH0CTn, 
Ha^HHaa Cb qepHOsesiHofi CTena y vix-h noanomift h ;io a^BniflcEHXt 
ayroBT. na aepaiHHaxi, HaH(5oJi'fee xapaKxepHHMH h caMOCroaTeab- 
HUMB Bf) ropaxx 4'ayHaMH aB.MioTca TOJibKO SB'fc: aAhniitcKaa h 
lopHOcmenHan. FlepBaa Hace;iaeT^ caMuH BepxaiS noac^ ropi, 
xaMi, Txi npeKpamaerca ^rpeeecaaa pacTHTejibHocTb h npocTapa- 
lO'ica pacKoniHue BucoEoropaue Jiyra cpe^a Mopeax h Topqau;0Xi 
CKajix y rpaBBn,u JiejiHHKOB^. 

AjtbiiiScKifi noflCB orpaaaqeH^ CHHsy noiocoB JiicoBi, 
cocToani,0X^ hjh hst. depesa, Cb npHM'fecbio jipyraxx aacTBea- 
Bux% aopo.n> (aanp. cySa-ibniScKaro KJieaa, pafiaaH, ocehli 
H ip.) aaa hsi cocbh. Jlyra axoro noaca noKpiiTH pasaooS- 
paBBHMH rycTo pacxymaMa TpaBaMH ci KpacBBuna ii,B'tTaMH, 
cpcjiH KOxopHXi nonajiaioTca sapocja ropaux^ KycxapaaKOBi. 
(po;^OAeHApoH^). 

$ayaa ropHO-CTenaaa pasBHxa aa Sesji'icsbiXT. BaMCHHCxuxx. 
BepaiHBax^ a cKJioHaxi 6oj4e a.aH siea'fee bhcokhxx ropi a 
njiocKoropifi, c'i5;i;jOBHHaxx, no Kpaaii^ yni,ejiifi a soiHH'b (oSbikh. 
aa BHC. 3000 — 6000 ^.). PacxaxejbHocxb axaxi MicxHocxefi 
aa KaMeHHCioMi cyficxpaxi, xpaBaaacxaa a KycxapaaKOBaa, Hocaxib 
aa cefii nycxHHHO-CTenaoS oxaeqaxoEx. OSi axa (f>ayaH, hombmo 
cnei^ia.iBHux'b, hmti tojibko cBoficxBeaabixi (J)opMi, aji'feiox'b bi 
CBoeMi cocxaai ea;e b xaKie bbah, no Kpaflaefi Mipt hbi siy- 
paabeBi, Eoxopae pacnpocxpaaeHu Aa-scKo aa npefftan bthxi 
ropauxx oOaacxeS a atHByxi Ha paBBHHi, ho y»e aa flpyrBX-B 
Htcxaxi oGaTaaia. HamenpHJOiKeHBUfl cohckb noacHflioxi axo. 



— 96 — 



MHpMeKo4)ayBy HaropHuxx crenea cocTaBJiaioT^ CA'huYiow^in 
$opMH: 



Lasius exacutus 


C. tichomirovi 


L. alienus 


?C. interjectus 


L. niger 


0. aethiops v. glaber 


L. emeryi 


Myrmecocystus aenescens 


L. brunneus 


M. tancrei 


L. flavus 


M. setipes 


L. myops 


M. bicolor 


Formica gagates 


Cremastogaster sordidula 


F. sanguinea 


Cr. bogojawlenskii 


F. transcaucasica 


Solenopsis orbula v. latroides 


F. uralensis 


Tetramorium caespitura 


F. ruflbarbis 


T. caesp. v. splendens 


F. clara 


? T. schneideri 


F. clara v. caucasica 


Myrmica lobicornis 


F. cinerea 


?M. rugulosa 


F. cin. V. armenica 


M. scabrinodis 


F. cin. V. imitans 


M. laevinodis v. minuta 


F. pratensis 


Temnothorax rogeri 


F. pressilabris 


Bothriomyrmex meridionalis 


Proformica nasuta 


Pheidole pallidula 


?Pr. aberrans 


Messor structor 


Camponotus lateralis v. atri- M. aegyptiacus v. incorruptus 


color 


M. caducus 


?C. fedtschenkoi 


Aphaenogaster testaceo-pilosa 


C. saxattlis 


Cardiocoiidyla bogdanovi 


C. buddhae 


C. elegans 



Hsi axoro cnacKa bh;iho, ito ^ayaa HaropHoM cieaH, KaKi 
a y;Ke o6t> 3tomx ynoMHHajfi', HMieii MHoro ofiinHXi $opMi ch 
KaMCHBCToa H qepH03eMH0ff CTenLK), pasHO KaKx H Ch nycTHHeS, 
HO y He3 HiitiOTca h cneii;iajii.HUfl ^opMii, npH;i;aioiii,ia eM ocoSBifi 
rafiHTycx h bh^ ropHuxi oSjiacxeS OHeEH;iHo He ecTpiiaioniiaca; 
— BOTh noqeiiy ropHo-CTeuHaa ofijacTi. h ;tojiacHa 6htb BH;^'6JIeHa 
KaK'B caMOCToaTejiBHaa ciai^ia. Ki coaKaaiBiio He Besji,i eme 

aiH TBDHIHEia fOpHO-CTenHBIfl •I'OPMH ^OCTaTOHHO KOHCTaTBpO- 



— 97 — 

BaHU. FjiaBHBIUl. OSpaSOH'B OH'b HSB^CTHH Ch IlaMBpa H Cb 

KaBKasa. Ha IlaMHpi (fijiaroiiapa cfiopasn. H. B. B o r o a b a e h- 
c K a r o) BaH'B crajiH hsb^cthu xaRifl eecoMH'iHHO TBuvmnua. rjis 
ToS H'itcTflOCTH (|)opMH, BaKi Campotiotus tichomirovi, Crema- 
stogaster sordid, bogojawlenskii, Lasius emeryi h Myrmica 
laevinodis var. minuta. Ha KaBKaai Haropaaa crenb ocoSchho 
xopomo pasBHTa bt. ^arectaH'fe, si, SasaBKasb't, bx ApMeaiH. 
TaMT> oCaxaioTx: Form, cinerea armenica, Form, clara v. 
caucaiiic&, Messor caducus, M. aegyptiacus v. incorruptus, 
Form, pressilabris, Myrmecocystus hicolor b h. Ap., 6oJibmaa 
lacTb KOHxi (tuAVi TaMi Ha{i;ieHu K. A. C a r y h h h h m i. 

AojiateHX saM-feTHTb, hto MHoria (JtopMH noMtmeHH mhow 
Bx cnHCOSi nOKa npoBHSopHO no HesociaTKy HysBUX'b AaHHtixx. 
Bnocj^ACTBiH MoatcTx 6HTb OB'S OKaatyTca Oojite xapaKxepHUMH 
SJia flpyraxt CTan,ifi, nanp. m^ nycTHHH hjih ;iJia aibnificKofi 
oGjiacTH. 

He noAJejEHi-b coMHiHiK), hto ^ayna MypaBbesi Haropnofi 
cxeaa Baedojlie poACXBeHaa Ch 4)ayHofi KaMeHHOxoS nyciHHH 
H KaueuHCxofi cxerin. BtpoaxHO, nocJi'fe xoro, KaKi. npoasBe^eHH 
Sy^yxx Aocxaxo^HO no.iHHa HSCJii^oBaHia, npajiexca coe^HHHXb Bci 
axa ^ayHbi bx o;iho A'fcjioe, b% KOxopoMi neaxpajKHoe nojo- 
ffiCHie ;io.3ffiHa Sy^exi saaaxb ropHO-cxeaHaa ^ayaa. 

$opMaMH, BCxp'iqaiomHMHca m> aJibnificKofi o6jiacxH rop-B, 
MOffiHo CHHxaxb cjisyiomHXi: 

Lasius flavus (a v. flavoides) *Leptothorax alpinus 
*L. myops Mychothorax acervorum 

?L. exacutus *Myrmica rubida 

L. alienus *M. dshungarica 

Formica pressilabris M. ruginodis 

F. execta v. rubens M. laevinodis 

F. fusca M. rugulosa 

F. gagates M. scabrinodis 

F. transcaucasica *M. sraythiesi 

F. rufibarbis M. lobicornis 

? Myrmecocystus aenescens *M. sulcinodis 

Tetramorium caespitum *Aphaenogaster obsidiana 

7 



— 98 — 

BoaBinafl HacTfc MypasbeBi sioro caacKa oTjHiaioTca raa- 
poKHMx pacnpocTpaaeHieMi h pasHOxapaKTepHocxbio m*cto- 
oSHTaaifl. TojiBKO OTMiiCHHue 3Bi3AOiKoB Moryrt noBHjtHMOMy 
CHHTaTBCfi s'lacTBHTejbHO xapaKxepHHMH wa aJibnificKaro noaca 
rop% H noTOMy acKJHO^HTMbHO Kx HeMy iipiypoqeHHHMH, xoxa 
H aa'fccb jtJia ntKoropuxi BcetaKM npH;ieTCa c;iiJtaTb HCBJiOHeaie 
(Hanp. Myrm. sulcinodis, Myrm. rubida, Las. myops, Bcxpi- 
naiomieca bi Sopaxi.). 

P-feqHbia HOJlHHbl M KyJIfeXypHblH MtCTHOCTH. 

Bi BHffleH3;ioateHHOMT. mh pasofipa^M rpynnapoBKy uy- 
paBBBBi no HaaCoJiie KpynauMt, xapaKTepauMi CTai\iaM%, KaKO- 
BHMH aBjaioTca: lici, cienB, nycxHaa a BBicoKia oSjacxa ropx. 
JI,jia QOJiHOTH 9Toro pascMOTpiHia Hu ;^OJIatau eu;e CKaaaiB o 
pnuHuxi doAUHUXz H KyAhmypHUXh MrbcmuocmHZZ. 

PwmuH doAUHbi ae aMiioxi xaEoro oapeAijeaaaro Tana, 
KaKx Jiici. HJia cieaB, b6o bx ax* npcA'^Jiax'b Bcxp'feqaiOTca a 
jitca H jiyroBHa, xpaBaaacxHa npocxpaacxBa a necEa, aepi^iKO 
nopocuiie cocbobhmh 6opaMH. Jlica bt, piqanx^ ^tojiaaaxi pa- 
cxyxi. aa rpaaaxi bib b^ BHSMeaaax'B M^cxaocxaxi bi bb;!;* 
ypeMZ a aaceaeati acK-iioiaxeJiBao JiicHHMa ^opuaMa, ho xojibbo 
Bi MeabraeMx KoaaiecxBt, qiM* b% aicaxi aa aepeBa^axi. Bi 
xaKBXi ypeiiaxx qpesBBiMafiao o^uBHOBeaea'B a oSajieHi Lasius 
niger, acaaymifi a b^ naaxi a bi xoaMHKax^. SariM^ seCBiia 
Hep§jtKB Formica exsecta, Form, fusca, has. fuliginosus, 
Myrmica laevinodis a ruginodis. Ha xpaBaaacxBixx Jiyraxi 
Moaiao CKasaxL napaxx despasatjiBBO Las. flavus a Las. niger 
Bi. CBOBXx. aeasMiHHBixi, xcjiMBEaxt. Ki aaiix. lacxo npa- 
coe;iBHaioica: Tetram. caespitum, aHor;ia aa lori bm4ci* ex. 
Strong, christoplii, piace F. rufibarUs, Myrm, ruginodis, M. 
scabrinodis, Las. alienus, Las. mixtus, ^aate Form, fusca a 
F. sanguinea. Jl,Jia necKOBi o6HHaH Form, cinerea (typ. a 
imitans) a Myrmica rugulosa. ^ocJi;^Baa oneaB ofiuEaoBeHHa 
Bx ^o^iBHi cpcABaro xeHeaifl Bojira, ^;^4 oaa nocejiaexca ae 
TOJBKO aa necaaxx, ho a aa ajiOBaxHX'B jiyraxx. 



— 99 — 

Lasius niger na cwpHxi noftM hhxx xpaBAHHCTHXi Jiyraxi 
piBi (ocotfeHHo He6oJI.raax^, KaKi CBinra, B. ^epeMmaHi, 
Mema, ^6Ma h ;ip.) Hep4;i;B0 BoajBHraeTi piixjiiie, BHCOKie, sen- 
jiaHHe xoJHEBH, QOjiDHpaeM&ie cxed^aMH h .lacTbaMH ipaBi, (Jjiaro- 
j(apa KOTopHMi OHH TOJiBKO H y;iiepatHBaK)Tca ot-b paspymeHifl. 
IIoeTpoSEH 9TH ojHaRo BT. nepBoe Bpejia ctojb h^xhei h ne- 
npoHHu, 1T0 sa^e npn cjia6ou'B tojihe'S jierKO pacna;iaiOTCa. 
Baocj§;icTBiH ohh oct^taioTi h ciaHOBaTca doJite idiothiimh. 
Tasia ace aocTpofiKH bosbowtcs 9thm% MypasbeMi ofiuKHOBeaHO 
H nocjit CHJiBHUX-B, npoJHBHuxx joJK^eft. Henpo^HOCTB H Jtersaa 
paapymaeMOCTii TasHxi rHisAi lepHoSyparo aasiyca sacTaBaaerb 
ero ^acTO M^HaiB hxi h BosjtBHraxb HOBBia, BOTopna CTasaxca 
oSHKHOBeHHO Tyii-ate hoSjihbocth. Lasius flavus TaBHXi psix- 
.TiHXi, HcnpoiHuxx H CHCxpo coQpyffiacMHXX ra'isjui He ;i;i;iaen.; 
€ro paSoTH Beayxca Me^weHoia h npoHHifi. HHor^a, bi ohchb 
pi^KHXi cjiyqaaxi, xaKie ate HenpoiHHC, ho xojibko ohchb hc- 
6oJBmax'B pasM'IpoB'B xojimhbh ycxpaHeatox'B h HiEOxopBia mhpmh- 
«H {Myrm. rugulosa, M. laevinodis). 

Uoji'b xepMHHOMii ^KyAbmypuaH MtbcmHOcmh" a nojpasy- 
MtsaK) Micxa nocejieHia nejios'bKa cb npnjieacaii^HKH bi hhui 
nojiaMH, oropoAaMH, ca;^aMH, napsaMH n yca;(B6aMH. Ha TasHxi 
Micxax^ BO 1-xi) ocxaioxca H-feKoxopue h3i> npeasHHXi ofiHiaxeJieff, 
a(5opHreHOBi cxpaHti, npHcnoco6jraiora,ieca k% hobhm'b ycjiOBiaMx; 
BO 2-X7.) nocejaiOTca HOBue eojohhcxh, npHXO;iamie BMicT-fe a 
qeiOBtKOMX H qacxo coBepnieflHO BHxicHaron^ie afiopHreHOBt. 
Bcxpiiaioxca SA'hcb h nparaeimH hbi ox^taoteHHHXi cxpaHi, 
saBCseHHue cjiyqafiao qejOBiKOin., noceiHsniieca bi ero ;50Maxi, 
cjiijiaBDiieca ero aaxpeSexHHKaMH. Bhrh Bxopofl saieropiH npe;^- 
cxaBaaioxi xapaBxepHuB npHM'ipi anofiBHHecsaro pacnpocxpa- 
HeHia. 

Boo6me ({)0pMi, CBoMcrBeaauxt KyjibxypHUMi MicTaocxaiit, 
Me ocoSeHHO mhofo, BaBx aio bhaho h3i cji;'fc;i;yH)maro cnacBa: 

Formica fusca F. cinerea 

F. rufa Lasius flavus 

F. rufibarbis L. umbratus 



100 



L. niger T. caesp. v, reticuliventre 

L. alienus Cremastogaster subdentata 

L. brunneus Creni. subd. v, tlavicapilla. 

L. emarginatus Monomoriuni pharaonis 

Cainponotus ruzskii ?Stenamma asiaticum 

G. fedtschenkoi Aphaenogaster gibbosa v. 

C. turkestanicus inuschtaidica 

Tapinoma nigerrimura Messor structor 

Prenolepis vividula M. barbarus 

Plagiolopis pygmaea Myrmica laevinodis 

Solenopsis orientalis v. kasa- M. ruginodis 

lini'nsis M. scabrinodis 

Tetraiuorium caespituin Cardiocondyla elegans 

IIsT. naxi. Monomor. pharaonis jKHBeri HCK.noiaxeJbHO bt> 
jiojuaxi.; Prenol. vividula bi Tenjini;axT.. SaxiMi. ;iOBOjibHO oOuk- 
HOBeHHFj TaBrse B^ nocrpofiKaxi HejOBina h okojio hhxx: La- 
sins niger (bi ropo;iaxT> Espon. PoccIh), Las. brunneus ^} 
(3aKaBKa3be), Las. emarginatus (loate), Las. alienus (aa 
lori Pocciaj, Tetram. caespitum (noBCioAy), Tetr. caesp. v_ 
reticuliventre, Solenops. orient, v. ImsaUnensis Cremast, 
subdentata (Bci ipn bt. TypKecTaHij, Tapinoma nitjerri 
mum H Cremast. subd. v. flavicapilla (bt. 3aKacnificK. ofiju)^ 
Camp, ruzskii (YpajbCK. o6ji.). HtKOiopue h3i npHBe;ieHHUx'K 
bh;108X, cjii^iya BCiojy sa HeaoBiKOUi, Cjii^ajiHCb qoith kocmo- 
noJiHTauH {Mon. pharaonis, Prenol. vividula). 

HbT. HaUIHXb iliCTHHS^ MypaBbBBl OCOSCHHO H&CTUWb Bt 

aiaiHU],axi HejoBiKa Bt cpeAHefi a bocto^hoB EspoQ. Poccia 



') llpo Lasius brunneus K. A. C a t y h h H i MHt UHcajii, IT0 bo speM* 
ero jipeOHBanu bb JleHEopauii MypiBBH bth •easa ero caworo iie extJH»; 
KorA* OKI Jiesaai OojBuoii bx oahom'i> aojit, to biioctcjib ero npespaTaJiacv 
uojoEiiTejiMio BT, MvpaBeflHHKT.*. HtiTo Bt 8T0MI pojii HcaHTajn H a oi* 
Lasius alienus, Korj;a nut npHmJiocB Ho^eBaiB bb caKJit OAHoro H3i ayjiOBV 
JlarecraHa. 



— 101 — 

aB.iaexca TeMHo()vpH8 .lasiyct (Lasius niger); oht. nocejiaerca 
ae TOJifKo Ri nesH-iBix^ crpocHiax'B (6aHH, aiaCapH, capaa, ^e- 
JUHHKH n np.), no a bi joiiax^, npaieMX h31 noc.TliiHHXi bu- 
CapaeTi xasie, Bt Koropuxt HMtioTca CK-iaja caxapHCTHX't hjih 
MyjancTux'B BemecxBi., bmchho GyjoiHua, neKapan, racxpoHO- 
MHiecKie MarasHHu, MeJOsHua jiasEH h np. OcoSeHHaro spejia, 
BnpoieMi, se-ioBtKy ohtj He npHHOCHTx; i"feM% 6oa'fee, hto oet 

He OrpaHHHHBaeTCa 06uKH0BeHH0 atHSHBIO HCK,ilIOHHTeJII>HO Bt 

aoMaxx, no Hsiteri. h bhxoih napyaty, nocfemaa cajiH, Auopw, 
oropoiu, n.B'feTaHKH h np.; tojibko na nieJibeaKaxi. onx ^'hfi- 
CTBHTe.!ii.HO HHorjia MojKeix 6uTb aenpia'reax. 

HepijlOK^ TaK^KB MtcTaMH B% CTpoeaiax-B a AOMaxx cpeji- 
eeH BOCToqaoH Poccia Tetramorium caespitum. 

B^ ropo;taxi — aa rpoiyapaxi, aa yjiBn;axi, okojio (|)yB- 
;iaMeaTOB^ ;iomobi a bi o6ni,ecTBeHBUx^ cajtaxi, KpoM'fe Lasius 
niger a Tctram. caespitum, mokbo qacro BcrpfcTBTb Formica 
ru/ibarbis a Las. alietius; piate Myrmica scahrinodis, Formica 
cinerea, Lasius umbratus a brunneus. Ha lor-fe, b^ SaKaBEasta, 
Kh HHMi. npacoe^BHaiOTCH Pheidole palUdula, Messor structor 
nCardiocondyla elegans. JI^Byxi. nepsuxi a aept^iKo aafijiioAaJi'ii 
rat3jiaai,HMHca Bayjaaaxi. r. TH4)jiBca, a nocai^Baa 6Hja oieab 
^fiBiKBOBeaaa b^ ropojiCKOMi. napR* MyraTaa^t (oko.io IIIejKO- 
Bo;^CTBeaBofi CTaartiB) '). nepeiacjeflBUMa (|)opMaMH, Koaeqao, 
HeorpaBBHHBaeTCa KoaTBHrenxi acfixi r'bx'h MypaBteBx>, KOxopHxx, 
Moatao Bcxp'fexHXb kx KaKOfi-^B^o Aaaaofi Ky-atxypaofi m'Scxbocth; 
Bce 3ji,'ich 3aBBCax% oxi. xoro, bi> KanaxT. ycJiOBiaxi aaxo^iHTca 
9xa MicxaocTb a bx, KaKoM cxeneaa aapyuieH-B qejiOB'SKOMi a 
€ro aasHiiK) Bi aeif nepBoSaTBHB xapaKxepi. B% aasjHoqeaie 
AOJiseax. sajiiiXHXb, qio ycjosia acaaaa iiypaBbeBx hi RyjibTypBuxt 



') SAtci Cordiocond. elega>is Oiraaa bi (So;i£nioMx KajiuqecTBi no necqaiibiMi 
Aop«xEaM% iiBtTUBKa H ua TpoTyapaxi, uo TKb HMeHHo rBlsAHJiacB, Hiii He 
yA&-ioo6 oTUCRaTB. TyTi-xe BMicTib c% neft uaxoAi'iBCB h Pheidole pallidnla 
■ Lasins alienns, THisABBinieca bi TpeniHuaxi saMHeft ipoTyapOBt. Bi> 6oTa> 
Ha<t<>cEau% ca^y TH^jioca, spoMi BEimeysasaHHiixi uypaBieBi a BCTpiTHai 
«iHe Myrmecoc. riaticus desertorum a M. cursor aenescens. 



— 102 — 

HiCTBOCTHXl. H Bl HenOCpe^CXBeHHOMTj COCijCTB^ Cb He.IOB'lK0M^^ 

npejCTaBjaEOTX HecoitHtHHufi HHTepeci, ho bo MHOraxi ox- 
HomeHiflxi ociaioTCH coBepmeHHo He BUflCHCHeHMH. 



Odsopi MzpMeKOJSorz^ecKoS $ayH£i Pocciz no 
yiacTKawx. 

Ho xapaKxepy MHpMeKOJiorHHecKoft (JayHH leppHiopia Poc- 
cia Moaiexi 6uxb pa3;i'6jieHa aa caisyioiii.ie hatb yqacxKOBx: 
EBponeScKaa Poccia, KpHMi, KaBKasx, ChShpb h Typash. 

Eeponeiicuafi Poccifl. B^ npeji^Jiaxx EeponeUcKoil Pocciu 
aaSjieHO ao CHxt nop^ okojio 1 05 4>opMi MypasteBi. BojiBraaa 

^aCXL 031 HHXX, HMCHHO CBUffle 60, BCTp^HaCTCa XaBSe H BT. 

3anaAHo8 Esponfe, noieMy h MapMeso^ayHa EBpon. Poccia ho- 
CHX^ Ha cedi no npeHMymecxsy eBponefiCKifi xapasxepi. KpoM'fe 
Toro Bi. cocxaB'i pascMaxpaBaeMofl HHpueKO^aynu HMiioxca eme 
^opMQ cuSupcKin a cnei^iaMUhin. KojinneexBO CBponeacKHXi (I)opMi. 
cocxaBJiaeTi> ok. 58"/o, ch6hpckhxx— ob. 6,5% a cnenia.iBHux'B. 
— IS'/o- 3ax'feM'B HyjKBO yKasarb eme na npHcyxciBie b-b Map- 
iieKOJiorH?ecKofl (Ijayni EBp. Poccia ntKOxoparo KOJHqecxBa 
^opM-B cpeflHcasiaxcKHX'B, Kasi HanpaM. Myrmec. foreli, Car- 
diocond. elegans var. uljanini, C. stambulovi var. koshewnikovi 

B H. MP; HO OH* XHSyXl Ha CaMOtt lOro-BOCXOHHOft OKpaHH-fe 

Esp. Poccia a Bceiiijio npanaAJteJEaTi. Typany. 

<&opMaMa cnen;ia.iiBHHMH a noKa HasHBaio xaKBXi, Eoxopua 
HafijieHti dHjiB HCBJioHHxejiBHo Bi Efip. Poccia, ecjH-ate Hiso- 
Topua H3X. Hax-B H H^yxx 3a npeA'fejiu ea, to bo BcaK0MT> cjy- 
nai oieHB He;iaJieKo. Ki axHMi (|)opMaMx apHHaj-ieataxi cji'1>- 
^yiomie MypaBBH: 

Formica rufa v. meridionalis Camponotus marginatus ka- 
F. pressilabris v. rufoma- mensis 

culata C. hercul. v. shitkovi 

F, fusca V, gagatoides Leptothorax melnikovi 



— 103 — 

L. tub. kirillovi Messor tataricus 

L, nass. volgensis M. structor v. clivorum 

Mychothorax muse, flavescens Tetramorium caespitum v. 

M. acervorum var. superus ferox 

Myrmica scabr. bessarabica 

Eme HM^JOTCa $OpMH, KOTOpEia HafijieHH Bi BOCTOIHOft 

Enp. PocciH H Bx npH;ieaiain,Hxi Ki Hefl ^aciaxx Asia, Kast 
HanpHM. Strongylogn. christophi, Myrmica sulcinodis v. nig- 
ripes. Ceepxi Toro HecoMHiHHO taitate h H^KOTopHS h3i npn- 
BeAeHHHXi B-B cuHCK* ^opMi coBpeMeHCMi HaB^yTca bx Asia, 
a Form, rufa v. meridionalis yjse HSBicxeHi hsi 3ana;tHofi 
Ch6hph. 

^HCTo asiaTCKHMH ^opuaMH Bx ^ayHi Esp. PocciH m-h 
MypaBbCBx flB.iaiOTCa: 

Caraponotus p. saxatilis F. clara 

Formica uralensis Leptothorax stipaceus 

F. rufib. T. glauca L. nassonovi 

Oflt npHHa;iJieKaTx no npeHMym,ecTBy ofiaacTH Ypaaa h 
BOCTOBy Eep. PocciH, ra* pacnpocTpaaeHH cnopa;jHHecKH. 

IlpHcyTCTBie aaiaTCKO-CHfiapcKHXt ^pjii Bt Espon. Poc- 
ciH yKasHBaeTt aa to, hto ea HapiieBo^ayHa, cozpaHaa vh 06- 
mHxi ^eptaxi eaponeficBifi xapaKiep-b, bi Toate spcMa na bo- 
CTOBi He p^sBO OTrpaHHHHBacTca OT-B Aain. Kt TOMy-ate HyasHO 
npHHaxt BO BHHMaaie h to o6cToaTejibCTBO, hto 3HaHHTejii.Hoe 
BOjH^iecTBo (|)opMi MypaBBCBx, o6u^BX'b EspoH. PocciH H Espon^, 
pacnpocTpaHeHu Tasaie b bi Ch6hph. 

Ha ocHOBaniH xoro, ^to naHi xenepb h3b4cxho pacnpe- 
AiacHiH MypaBBeBt Bt Esp. PocciH, npcACxaBJiaexca BOSMoat- 
HOCTB Bf. npejtjrax'B ea BH;^iaHTB hjih, xoHHie CKasaxB, nosa 
HaMixHTb c.i§sy»mie 6 pafiOHOBt hjh ospyroBi: ciBepBHft, 
sana^^Hufi, loacHuiK, i^eaxpaiiBHO-BocxoiHHfi, ^HHiaBxiio h Ypajix. 

CneepHuii pafioai, saaatHft noJiocofi TyB^pi, (Jojioti h 
xafirB, oTJiH^aexca BpaSae QimoU h OABOodpasHofi HBpveBo^ia- 



— 104 — 

vHofi. ^M Hero MoatHO c^HxaTb xapaKxepHUMH Camp. here. v. 
shitkovi, Form, fusca v. gagatoides, Mychoth. acervorum, acH- 
ByiUHXx Ha oKpaHH-fe xafirH h TyeapM. Ho Bcefl rafiri pacnpo- 
cxpaHeHH H o6h.ui.hij bi nefl: Formica rufa, F. fusca, Camp. 
herculeanus, Myrm. laevinodis h M. ruginodis. Ho eiBa-JH 
3TBXI MypaBseBi laMra upaBCJia ct. co6ofl b3i ChShph; ohh 
no BceS B-fepoflTHocTH paobHie ea acH.iH bi jpeeHHXi Kpyrono- 
-lapHHXi. jiicaxT.. a c% np0xo;toM7, rafirH cboSojiho yacHBajiHCB 
w BB Heu. K)mHaa rpasHaa aioro pafiona npoxo^iHTi npagjiH- 
sHTCiiBHo lepeai ciBepayio nacTb HepMCKofi ry()., BfltCKyio, 
cfesepHHa lacTH KasaacKoa h Haateropo^icKoa, shTiwh r^'fenyexs 
no TuqeHiro Bo^ira. i^exa^iBHO aia rpaHHua bi MapMeKOJorH'iecKOMX 
OTHomeHia eme He Moacexi 6ut£. ycTaHOBjena. 

'ianadHhiH. pafioHi oxBaxHsaeTi rjiaBHUM^ o^pasoMi. IIpH- 
BHCJiHHCKift KpaB H npHJieacamia k% neMy ryfiepHiH Ch Bojhh- 
CKofi KieBCKoS BKJioMHxejibHo, orpaHHiHBaacb Ha BocxoKi 
npB0JiB3axeJibH0 xeieHiewL ^ninpa. Ohi. xapaKxepaayeTca .I'fe- 
caM0 sana^iHo-eBponeScKaro Tana, HacejieHHHMH xaKHMH ({)opMa- 
M0, KaKT. Temnothorax recedens, Ponera coarctata, Lasius 
emarginatus, Myrmecina graminicola, Stenamma westivoodi, 
Dolichod. quadripunctatus. Camp, marginatus, h3x KoxopHxi 
o;iHt BOCTOiH'ie, bi. i;eHxpajibHyK) EBp. Pocciio, ne aiyxi, apyria* 
Bcxpiiawxcs TaMi> p^ako. Ho oei pacnpocxpaaeHti bb aicax'R 
loacHofi noJiocH na KaBKasi. HiKOxopua, BnpoieMi, npoHHKJH 
aaate bi Ch6hpb h b% TypKecxaHi, ho bo BcaKOMx cjiyiat 3a- 
na^iHoe hx^ nponcxo^KiieHie necoMHtHHO. 

K)m;huu pafioHx Esp. Poccia npeicTaBJiaexi coCoio noiiocy 
cxeoH, rjiaBHHMx ofipasoMi lepeoseMHofi, h kkhhxx cxenauxT. 
JiicoBi. MapMeKO^ayna ero THnanHO cxenHaa. OcoCchho xapaK- 
xepHHMH jja axoro pafiona, Mni Kaatexca, ayaseo apasHaxb 
Myrmecocystus cursor caspius (aenescens) h Myrmica scabri- 
nodis bessarabica. Saxijii xaKate necoME'SHHO h3b§cthhS ox- 
xiHOKx. ero MapiieKOJorHiecKofi ^ayai apa^iaiOTi.: Messor stru- 
ctor (var. muticus), Camponotus lateralis (var. atricolor, me- 
rula), Camp, vagus, Myrm. lobicornis v. deplanata, Polyergus 
rufescens, Froformica nasuta, Form, cinerea v. imitans. Mo- 



— 105 — 

atcT'fc 6BiTb Ha8;tyTca erne h jipyria i|(opMH nocj* 6oJite no3- 
pofiBuxi HswijiOBaHifi. ^aa JitcoBi 9Toro oKpyra xapaKxepHu: 
Form, rufa v. meridimalis, Liometopum microcephalum, My- 
choth. muscorum v. fagi. 

UeumpaAhHO-eocmoHHUu paSoHi saEJiioHaeTi bi ce6t n,eHT- 
paatHyio qacTB h boctoe* Eap. Poccia ao Ypaaa. 3to oOjiacTB 
lUHpoKOjacTBeHBHxi (no npcHMymecTBy aySoBuxi) JiteoBi h 
cocHOBuxi dopoBi. Ha lori ohx saeaTi ^epHOseMHoB CTeabw, 
nepeMeataiomeHca cb ocxpoBaMH jiicoBi, h HeaaMiiHO nepexo- 
;iHTT> Bi loatHufl pafioHi. /l^ja ;];y6oBiJX'5 JiicoBi xapaETepHU 
Leptoth. melnikovi, Camp, margindtus kamensis, Lasius fuli- 
ginosus h up. Bopu nu'biOTb cbok) ocoSyro, caei^iajbHyio (})ayHy, 
Koropofi Mu yae rosopHJB. KaMeHHCxaa CTcnb sjtCB, oco- 
6eHH0 Ha BOCTOEt Esp. PocciH, pasBHTa ch-ibho b HMieTi Ta- 
EHXii xapaExepHHXi npe;iCTaBHTejiea, KasB Messor tataricus, 
M. structor v. clivorum, Tetr. caespitum v. ferox, Solenopsis 
fugax orientalis, Plagiolepis pygmaea, Las. umbratus exacutus. 
KpoMt Toro CBoeo6pa3Hu8 ra6HTyc'b MHpMeK0(J)ayH4 BasBaaHaro 
pafioHa npB^iaiOTi Lasius carniolicus, Strongylogn. christophi, 
Leptoth. tub. kirillovi, L. nass. volgensis, Camp. marg. ruzskii, 
Polyergus rufescens h rb caSHpcKia ({)opMH, KOTopua 6u.3h 
yaasaHU paHhine. 9tb noMtflHia BJi'icTi cb ipyrFMH npe;ieTa- 
BHxejiaMH cafinpcEOfi (j)ayHu (aai nxHii,* Hanp. Emheriza au- 
reola, Sturnus mensbieri, Milvus melanotis) nocxeneHHO jibh- 
raioxca aa 3a^aJ^^. Boo6in,e npo ^ayay n,eHxpajibBO-BOcxoHHaro 
paaoaa Enp. Poccia ayatHo CEasaxb, hxo oaa aocax'fc ua ce6i 
saMtxBBifl oxne^axoEi Asia: eBponeficKO-cafiapcKia ^opMH xaMi 
^acTU a oSHKBOBeaHH, 3ana;iBHa-ate p'£;^KH hjih OTcyxcxByioxii, 
He roBopa yate apo npacyxcxBie ^'fe;Iaro pa^ta qHCTo asiaxcKaxi 
4)opMi.. Oxi xaflra axoxii pafioa^ oco6eHHO ji^cxaMH, bcji*;!- 
cxBie yaaqToaieaifl ea (^ocpe;^CTBOM'b BopyCoEi a noatapoBx) a 
BHtipeHia Kh ctaepy $opMi> jiHCXBeaHux^ JiicOBx a oxqacxB 
cxenefi, oxjinnaexca He pisEO. 

0UHAHHdin xapaBxepasyexca AOBOJbHO CBoeo6pa3Ho8 MBpue- 
KOjorHHecKoB 4>ayHott, HM-fiioiuefi xtcaoe cooTBoraeaie cb ^ayaofl 
IIlBeE(iH a Hopaeria. HecMOxpa aa CBoe ciaepHoe nojoateme 



— 106 — 

9Ta ctpaHa rpaHHia h cochh HMieTi. cpejH npeACiaBHTejefi 
CBoeg MHpMeKO^ayHH sHaiHTCJBHoe KOJfHqecTBO ctenHuxi (i»opM%, 
cocTaBJiaioinHXT. noiTH 407o Bcero ea cocxaBa. $opMH 9th 
lawh, OHeBHJ^HO, npiypo^eHw ki cochobumi dopaMx. HMiiOTca 
TaMi Tasxe h THnHHHua ropHHa (|)opMU, KaKOBU Myrmica ru- 
bida H sulcinodis. XapaKTepeai. jtja ^viRJianum xaKwe Tomog- 
nathus suUaevis. OcxajitHoe KOJiH'jecTBO HacejieHia MypaBteBx 
cocxaBJiaioxi b% Cojii.mHHCTB'fe cjiyiaeBi. (j[)opMu 6o;i4e Hjih ue- 
Hie oSuKHOBeHHua, luapoKopacnpocxpaHeHHHa. Bcero jio chxi. 
nopi Bi $0H;iaHAiH, Koxopyio co6cTBeHHO roBopa HsyHaat (h 
TO He Bcio) o;^He^ xo^ilko Hajianiepi, KOHCTaiHpoBaHo 33 
4)opMH MypaBbeBi. Hbt. hhxt, ocofiaro BHHMaHia sacjiyKHBaiori 
cJi'fc;iyiomia: 

Camponotus ligniperdus F. rufibarbis 

C. vagus F. sanguinea 

Lasius fuliginosus Leptothorax tuberum 

L. umbratus Tomognathus sublaevis 

L. alienus Mychothorax muscorum 

Polyergus rufescens (ocxp. Myrmica rubida 

BajixificK, Mopa) M. scabrinodis 

Formica truncicola M. rugulosa 

F. pratensis M. lobicornis 

F. pressilabris M. sulcinodis 

F. gagates Tetramorium caespitum 

TaRaa necxpaa K0M6HHai;ia 4)opMX ;ija ctoai. cicepHofi 
v&cxHOCXB AosiRaa. fiuxb QpesHaea oqeab opHrHBajBHofi. 

Cioj^aate, noBH^tHMoay, nyatHo npHiHCJiHXfc h Form, exseda 
suecica, KOxopufl xoxa noKa HSBicieHx xojibeo cx ocxposa 
AaBHo Bx BoxHHqecKOMx sajiHsi, ho aipoaxHo Hafi;iexca h ex 

Hsi ^pBBe;^eHHa^o cnHCKa bh;iho, ixo bx ^nBsanfi^ npe- 
o6jia;taeT'b MHpMeKO(J)ayHa cochobmxx Goposx, Cojbmaa ^acxb 
4)opH'£ Eoxopofi asjiaioxca xaxate a thqbhho cxenHUMH. KpoH'6 
Toro T&wh Bcxpisawxca h ({)opMH KaMeHHCxoft CTenH, ho Kant 



— 107 — 

OB'S xasii pacnpeA'i^eHH h Kasofi CTai;iH npEHaAJieiKaTi, 
ocTaeica HeHSBicTHHMi. Hyxao lyMait, hto Sojimaa nacxB 
H3i yEasaHHtiXT. bi cuHCK-fe (|»opMi o'leHb jipcBHaro npoHCxoffi- 
;!i;eHia, hto oh4 coxpaHHJfHCb b-b ^atijiaBjiivi co BpeMea^ JiexHH- 
KOBaro nepio^a, a hc nparajH tyjia Bnoc:i^;iCTBiH. 

Ha YpaArb HBBtcTHo no cnxi, nopi. okojo 51 ^opuH My- 
paBBeBX. ^Hcio aio Ceai coMH'iHia nenoJiHoe, TaKi Kasi Hyasao 

npHHflTB BO BHHMaHie, HTO BX MHpMeKO^lOrHieCKOMX OTHomeHia 

doaie h;ih Meate y^tOBJieTBOpHxeJibao ascji^jtoBaaH tojbko b"!- 
BOTopua MicTBOCTH Bi loxaoH lacTH Ypaja; KpoM'ib Toro hm'I- 
H)Tca epaBBHxejBBo xopomie cSoptt hsx cpe;?aeft qacxa; c^Bep- 
BHfi ypaax BOBce ae HScat^toBaai.. 



$opMU 9XH cji;iyioai,ifl: 

Caniponotus herculeanus 

C. ligniperdus 

C. pennsylvanicus saxatilis 

Lasius flavus 

L. flavus V. odoratus 

L. myops 

L. myops v. tlavoides 

L. umbratus 

L. mixtus 

L. bicornis v. affinis 

L. niger 

L. brunneus 

L. alienus 

Formica rufa 

F. truncicola 

F. pratensis 

F. uralensis 

F. exsecta 

F. exsecta v. rubens 

F. pressilabris 

F. fusca 

F. gagates 

F. rufibarbis 



F. rufibarbis v. glauca 
F. cinerea 

F. cinerea v. imitans 
F. sanguinea 
Proformica nasuta 
Myrmecocystus cursor aenescens 
Tetramorium caespitum 
Formicoxenus nitidulus 
Tomognathus sublaevis 
Leptothorax nassonovi 
L. tuberum s. str. 
L. tuberum v. nigriceps 
L. tuberum stipaceus 
L. tuberum unifasciatus 
Mychothorax acervorum 
M. acervorum v. nigrescens 
M. acervorum v. superus 
M. muscorum 
M. muscorum flavescens 
Myrmica laevinodls 
M. 1. ruginodis 
M. scabrinodis 
M. sc. rugulosa 



— 108 — 

M. lobicornis M. sulcinodis v. nigripes 

M. lobicornis v. derl.inata Strongylognathus christoplii 

M. sulcinodis 

CaiiuMH MHoroiHCJieHnuMn h3^ {{lopjii. siypaiu-eBii Ha Ypa- 

Jl'i, KaKX 9T0 BH,XHO H H3^ CIlHCKa, ilB;iaK)TCa ({jOpHOKH, MHpMHKH 

VI .lasiycH Oieei, TaKine of)UKHOBeHHu Blijchotliorax^a. Hai. 
(j[)opMHKT> pi^ioKT. Form. truncicola. IIs^ jiasiycoBi SoJi'fee lacTU 
(})opMrj JKC.iTaro .lasiyca [Las. flavus s. ext.). Ms^ KaMnoHoxy- 
coBi ipesBuqaflHo oouKHOBeseuMx aB.iaeica Camp, saxatilis, 
npHHa;i;.ie3taui,iri r-iaEHLiM^ ofipaaoMi. ofijiacTH CKajn.. h hobhjih- 
MOMv oqeHb pijiKHMi. — C. Hgniperdus, HaSjenaufi 9Kcne;iHuie8 
rp. 3 IT q H (111) 0K0.10 HajiTUMa SjIhsb EKarepaH^ypra Pro- 
formica nasuta, Stroufit/l. christophi h Mepaufl dtryHOKi) 
{Myrmec. aenescens) npunajieatari caMHMi wjEntiMi qacian^ 
ypa.ia. Lasiiis bicornis v. affinis ii X. brunneus ao.i/Knu 6uTb 
oieHb pt,iKH H cnopajiHHnu '). Lept. unifasciatus na ctEep-B 
lOCTHraexi no KpafiHefl nip's jio EKarepHHSypra. 

AaiaxcKifl (j[)opMu npcicxaRjeHH Ha Ypa^it jiobojiho xo- 
poiuo, HO 6oifcnieK) "jacTbio BCTpiqaioxca Ha BOCTO')noM^ ero 
cK-nont. Jl^Jia BTOpacenia hx^ bt. Espon. Pocciio YpaJii ne Mon 
npejCTaBHTi. oco(5eHHiJXi> nperpaAt oai jitBcxBHTeabHO ae- 
pera.in ero^ npoaojrjKaa pacnpocxpaHflXbca Kb sanajiy. Hai xa- 
KHX^ ({jopAix HyHiHO ynoMaHyxb npo Camp, saxatilis, Lept. nas- 
sonovi, L. stipaceus, Form, nralensis, Myrm. sulcinodis v. 
mfiripes\ Sojbuiaa nacxb nxi ;iocxHrjH jio Bojiph. To^ho xaKate 
H MHorifl esponeacKia ({)opMii, aBHraacL na Bocxoki, cbo(5oji;ho 
nepeceJiajiHCb sa Ypajii. bx. CHfJapb (nanp. Lept. tuberum v. 
nigrice2)s, Anerg. atratulus); HiKOxopua, Ao8j.fl jio Ypajia, 
sajiepata^iHCb xawx. (Lept. unifasciatus). Ho Polyergus rufe- 



') DepBHfi U3X 3TMXI JasivcoBi HaftjieHX Bx CojHKaMCKoji'B y. nepMCEoA 
ry6., Ha yfl-Tamt u b^ ryOep.iHiicuHxx ropajt Cbi Kaxjiofi mScthocth tojiiko 
no I sitcioHaxoxiieHiHi). BtopoH 6h.ii ao6HTi ToaBKO bi oihomi nyHKT'fi YpaJia, 
HMeHito Bx ateocienHoft o(5;racTii KpacMoy$BMCK. y., na BojBuiofl TBTemuoft 
ropli (CM. 1 qacTt Moefi paSoTH, cxp. 201 h 312). 



— 109 — 

scens H Dolichoderus quadripunctatus . ne aepeinJiH iepe3t 
Ypajib. TaBHMi ofipasoiii bi, HacToamee speiia mh lOJiatau 
npeiciaBHTb ce6i ^sa MHrpau.iOHHUxi. noroKa 4>opM't, bocto4- 
Huxi H sanaiiHHxx, TeEymaxx oaaai aa Bcxpiqy ^ipyroMy b 
CTaJiKHBaiomHXca aa Ypajit. 

OcoSeaao xapaETepauMH ^-na Ypa-m aBaatoxca xaKie My- 
paBbH, KaEt Tomogn. sublaevis, Mychoth. acervorum v. supe- 
rus H M. muscorwm flavescens. 3to Bipoaxao jipesaia (|)opMHy 
laKi Kant oa-fe oieai. pLsKH aa Ypa-ib a caopa^aqaH. Jl.B'fe ^e 
nocji'fe;iHia M0/KeTi-6uTb oRaatyTca aaieiinHecKHMH. 

YpaJii. BM^maetT. b'l ceC'b pasaooQpasBHa CTau,iH. TaMS 
ecTb laSra, JiHCXBeaHue jica, cocaoBue a AacTBeaaaqaue 6opu, 
CTCBb. Bci oat HacejieBH cbobmh cacAiajibauMB (|)opMaMa. Haa- 
fiojboiaro pasBHTia HMten. xafira, KOTopofi Ypajii saaaTX aa 
BHa^Hxejibaofi nacxa cBoero npoTaateaia a Koxopaa ajitcb cny- 
CKaexca bx> lory atcKOJbso jtajite 55° c. m. Casaaa loxaaa 
qacxb Ypajia, co BBJUoieaieji^ rySepaHHCsaxi ropi, aocaxt 
cienaoH xapasxepx. OcoSeaaaro BaHwaaia sacjiyataBaioxi aa 
Ypaai: 1) t. aaa. atcocxenaaa oojiacxt, xopomo oaHcaaaaa 
6oxaHHKaMH (KpHJioBT., ropAaraax, KopataacKi fi), 
BO aoHXH aeasyqeaaaa soojioraMa; 2) oS^acxb yxecoBX. a cKajx., 
pasBHxaa aa Bepmaaaxi xpeQxoBi a coaosb. Jl,.!a axoS aocjitji- 
aefi ooJiacxB xapaaxepau; Mychoth. muscorum s. str., M. w. 
flavescens, M. acervorum {typ., v. nigrescens, v. superus), 
Tom. sublaevis, Myrm. sulcinodis {typ., v. nigvipes), Camp, 
p. saxatilis, Las. flavus, L. myops, L. alienus; xyxi-ate BCxpt- 
naioxca Myrm. ruginodis, scabrinodis a lobicornis. 

MapMBKOJioraqecKaa $ayaa Ypajia uo CBoejiy cociaBy a 
xapaKxepy Huiexi. Macro o6ai,aro ci xaKOBOfi-ate ^aajaa^tiu^ 
qxo yKaausaexX) aa asBicxayio csasb, cyu;ecxByioa;yH) MeJKjiy 
AByufl axHMa M'icxaocxaMa. H Ma'!b saxexca, hto axa csasb^ 
CA4.iaexca ea^e 6ojte oiCBa^taofi, Kor^a dy^exx aacji^tOBaaa 
Bx HapMeBOjiora'iecBOM'b oxaouieaia npoiiexyxo^aas nojoca 
(rjiasa. o6p. OjoaeitRaa a Bo;ioroACBaa ry6,), aeaaa^aa Measfly 
YpaJioM'b B $aajiaBAiefi. BecbMa BtpoaTao, mxo TO^;^a npepu- 
B^axoe pacnpocxpaaeHie xaKHxi ^'opMij o6ai,Hxx YpaNiy h $hh- 



— 110 — 

jiaHjia, RaBt Tomognathus sublaevis h Myrmica sulcinodis, 
OKaateicfl npocio cayqaflHUMi., BUSBaHHHMi jihuii> HeaoCTaTROMx 
Hacj^AOBaHia, xaBx KaK^ MomeTt ciaTLca, ixo oat HaflAyTCa 
rAfe-.iHf5o H Bi BHineaasBaHHofl npoMeasyioiHOiJ nojocb. 

Kpbiin>. Bi. KpuMy Haaieso ;io cmxt. nopi 52 (|)0pMH 

MVpaBBCBl. ^HCJO 9T0 npeSBM^aflHO MaJIO H Bl Sj'^yiACMT. flOJ- 

jEHO SHaHHtejiLHO yBejiBqHTfcca, i&Kh KaEb MHpMeKOJiorHqecKaa 
4)ayHa KpHMa HHKiMX eme ne fiu.ia HSCJii^tOBaHa h bc* 
HMiioiniaca o He& catjiiHia ocHOBaaH na cjiyiaflHuxi cfiopaxi. 
T'^MTi He MCate ;iaaie h npa cxojib CKy^taiixi aaHHHXi. naMi 
HSBicTHH 4 (j)opMH, HafijeHHiia HCKJUo^HxejiBHo Bi KpHiiy, 
HiieHHo: Form, gagates var. muralewiczi, Leptoth. unifasciatus 
var. tauricus, Cremastog. nuberii karawaevi h Messor capita- 
tus var. jakowlevi KpoMt Toro xojbKO hst. KpuMa HSBicxna 
Poneru ochracea. Bet axa (|)opMH npHowH bi KpuMx ci sana^ia 
HJin K)ro-3ana;ta, x. e. MaaoaaiaxcKo-OaiKaHCEaro npoHcxoffi^enia, 
II xo.ibKO F. gag. v. muraleiviczi uovh BEipafioxaxtca h31 xh- 
HHiHaro gagates, nepecejiuBmaroca bi KpHMi> h31 io^khoS PoccIh, 
xoxa OHt OHCHb oSuKHOBeaeH^ u na BajiKaacKOMi nojiyocxpoBi. 
Cremast. karaivaevi npoasouiejii hsx Cr. auherti typ , KOxopHfi 
xoxa H aeHSB'fecxeHX eme aa BajutaacKOMi. nojyocxpoB'b, ho 
Hafljeax. bx Maaofi Asia ($ o p e ji b 936, cxp. 189); aa KaB- 
Kaai ate ohx. ae Suii BCxpiMeei. Ponera ochracea xaKate ae 
HSBiciaa eme cx> BaJiKaacKaro no.iyocxpoBa, ao no aeSojibmofi 
sajiixK* # p e Ji a (267, cxp. 9) Moatso ^oraji,aTbca, hxo oaa 
BOjiHxca Bi> Tpei^iH. 

Bi oSmeiix MHpMeKO(})ayaa Kpuaa o6HapyatHBaexx> cosep- 
meHHO cpe;iH3eMHOMopcKi8 xapaKxept. Cx. KaBKasoMi oaa 
DM^exTj OS. 45 oSmaxi (J)opM%; ci BajiKaacKHiii nojyocipoBOMx. 
H Majofl AaieK— OR. 42. $opMX., caen,iajbBO CBoacxBeaHHXx. 
KaBKaay, bx. neH iiOKa ae Ha8;ieHo. Bet ate $opMU MypaBbeBi, 
oSmia KpHMy h KasEasy, asjiawxca pacnocTpaaeaaHMH Boo6me 
B% Espont H BX. nacxHocxH BT, Cpe;i;H3eMBOMopeEoa ^o;^o6JIacTH, 
oxEVAa OH'ib npoHHKja a b-b KpuMi h aa EaBRaax.. 

Bi nocat^aee speiia 6Hai BticKasaax. earjiaj'b HiKOTopiiMH 
300.ioraMH (A. n, C ene ao b x-Ta atlll aac Ei fi, A. M. 



__ 111 _ 

H H E Ji B c K i a), ') 1T0 KpBiMi CuA'h paabuie bi coe;i;HHeHiH 
He ct KaBKaaoMi, a ch BajiKaHCKHMi noayocTpoBOMi hhocht'b 
Ha ce<$i lepxH ,6ajiKaHO-Majioa3iaTCKoft npapojiH". Ho axoMy 
UOBO^ty JlOJIXeHi SaM^feTHTb, HTO Bci HM^iomiacfl saHHHa, XOTa 
H OHeHb eune Heji;ocTaTOiHHa, no MHpMCito^ayH'fc HaaaaHHaro 
noJiyocfpoBa He tojibko hc npoTHBopiiaTx aiOMy viBiam, ho 
BHOJiH-fe no;tTBepat;i;aH)Ti ero. ^to KpuMt ;^OJ^ateHl 6htb ot- 
jiJiCH^ OTi EBpon. Poccia a ciHTaiBca caMOCToaTCJtbHHMi 
soo.iorHiecKHM'b yqaCTKOMi, — bt, btom-b, mh^ KaacTca, h^ti 
coMHiHia, Taai Kaai h npHpojia h (payna ero, bi ocoficHHocTH 
ropHofi HacTH H loatHaro fiepera, coaepmeHHO omhhhh oti. 
loatHoH Esp. Poccia. Bi KpHwy no apafiaefi Mtpi HM^CTca 
17 ^topMi" MypaBbCBi, KOTopua hc hsb^cthh h3% loaKHofl no- 
viocH Esp. PocciH H 6oJii.niaa 'lacTB KoxopBixi Tawi z ae 
Ha{t;i;yTca. 

KasKaai. Bb nacTOamee speMa Ha KaeKaan hsb^ctho 135 
<j[)opM^ MypaBBeax. Hst hhxx CJii^yiomia HaBACHH noaa hcbjio- 
iHTejiBHO Ha Kaaaasi: 

Camponotus aethiops v. gla- Leptothorax corticalis v. korbi 

bar L. alpinus 

Formica clara v. caucasica L. serviculus v. brauneri 

F. cinerea v. armenica Mychothorax muscorura v. 
Cremastogaster subdentata scamni 

V. scaBrida Apbaenogaster obsidiana 

Cr. sordidula v. kosti A. subterranea v. kurdica 

Cardiocondyla bogdanovi A. gibbosa v. muschtaidica 

Solenopsis orbula v. latroides Messor aegyptiacus v. incor- 
Tetramorium caespitum v. ruptus 

splendens Ponera coarctata v. lucida 
Strongylognathus cbristopbi 

V. rhebinderi 



') Gu. <<HtcEOJiBxo coogpaxeuiS o upoiujiox'B 4)ayEU h {tjiopH Epaua 
no noBoay naxosAeHia Tarn ropHoii lypouaiKH fCaccabis chakar G. K. Gray), 
A HAP- Ce xeHosao (SauHCEK Smu. AKas- HayKt, t. YIII, K 6), 1899. 
TaKxe: A. M. HKEOAKcxift, allpeciiBKaiDiiiixca h aeaiHOBOAHHa PoeciicKoS 
EvnepiB (SanHCKB Hun. AcaA- H., t. XYII, J6 1) 1905- 



112 



Bcero 18 (|)opMT., hsi kohxx MBoria OKaatyxca no BceB 
BipoflTHOCTH aHAeMHHecKHMK ^jiH KaBKasa, TaKT. KaKT. npe^i- 
CTaBjiflioTi fiojibmeio nacTbio HesaaiHTejibHua aapiaitiH qacTO 
MicTHaro xapaKxepa. BoJibinHHCxBO axHxi (|)opMi npHBaweacHT-B 
SaKaBKasbK). ^Jia raaBHaro KaBsascKaro xpedxa noBH^taMOMv 
xapaKTepeuMH aBjaioTca Aphaenocj. obsidiana h Leptoth. al- 
pinus, — o6a CBo2cTBeHHiJe aJbniacKoS o6.iiacTH KaBKaaa, npH- 
HeMi nepBuB H;^eT^ no Bcemy xpe^ry. Us-b xiypaBbeBb 3aKaB- 
Kasta sacjyiKHBajoTi BHHMania: 1) F. cinerea\a,r. armenica [nsi, 
oC.iacTH B. M. ApapaxoB^ h osepa roaqa), ;^OBOJIbHO CBoe- 
o6pa3Haa a xapaKxepaaa iua xoB MtcxnoCTH ^lopMa; 2) Cardio- 
condyla bogdanovl, npHHajivieffiamaa k^ HHxepecHofi, oxKpuxoa 
K. A. C a X y H H H H M '!> '), (j[)ayHt necKOBi okojio Apaauxa; 
pacapocxpaneHie 9xoii (JjopMU no Bcefi Bfipoaxnocxn OKaatexca 
6ojiie oSmapHUMX, xaab KaKb oaa, Kasx h Bca (|)ayHa Apa- 
jiuxcKHXi necKOBX., lypaflCKaro npoacxoajjieHia (hxo h no;ixBep- 
jjHJiocb ysie Ha ;ipyroMX) opHraHajbHOMi bhi^, nepBOHa<iajibHO 
jjoSuxoMt xaM^-ffie, HMenHO Leptothorax satunini, KOTopaa 
HOTOM'b 6uJii) HaHAeflX) Bx. Byxap-b); 3) Messor aegyptiacus v. 
incomiptus, atHBymifi bt. HaropHbixT> cxenaxx) SaKaBKasba a no 
BceR B'hpoflXHOcxH npe^icxaBjaiomig caMocxoaxejibHyio pacy; jiy- 
paBeB 3X0X1 HBxepeceHX) xiux, hxo aBjaexca aa KaaKas'fe bw- 
xo;in,eMx. nax cJjBepnofi A<f)pHK0, vxh ataBCxx. ero xananaaa 
(|)opMa. 

Ocxajibnaa MapMCKOJiorHHecKaa ({)ayHa KaBKaaa saKJiOHaexx. 
Bx ce64 (})opMU paBJiHiaaro npoacxoatAeaia. r.iaBauMx. o6pa- 
30MI oaa cjiaraexca h3x. xpoaKaro po^a ^topni: cpe^HaeMaoMop- 
CKBXX., ciaepao-najieapKXBHecKaxx. a cpe^tHeaaiaxcKaxT. (xypaa- 
CKaxX)). IIpeo6jiaAaH)ta,aMX. aaeiieHxoMX. b^ HeB asjaioxca cpe^B- 
seMHOMopcKia ({)opMH. Koxopua nepecejiajBCb aa KaBKaa-B ie- 
peax. MaJivH) Asiio. Ki aaiix, upaaaAJjeataxx. 6ojiBiuaa qacxt 
BaMnoaoxycoBx>, jenxoxopaKcu, (|)opMHi poAOBx. Cremastogaster, 



') CM. K. A. CaiyHHHi, oOsopa HscjitaoBauiH MjeKonHTamraHxt Kae- 
KaacKaro gpaa. Ot«. ott. hsi XXIV kh. SanacoKi KaBxascK. Ota. Hun. PyccE. 
reorp. Odm., Th^jihcb, 1903 r. 



— 113 — 

Magidepis, Bothriomyrmex, MypaBJiH-^taaTOH^HM, aeeHoraciepH 
H MeccopH, Monomorium salomonis, Cardiocondyla elegans, 
Acantholepis frauenfeldi, Tapinoma nigerrimum, Fheidole pal- 
Udula, Teiram. semilaeve h h. ^p. ^opuii 8th CBofiCTBeHBu 
noapeHHyn^ecTBy HHSHeMy noacy j'^bcoB'B h CTens. 

C'^BepHiia 4>opuu QpumiH na KaBxasx as-h Esponii re- 
peal BajisaHCKifi no^yocTpoBi Majiyio Asiio, na hto, HaapHH., 
npaMO yBasHBaeTi, HaxoatJieHie Formica rufa ') bi 3aBaBM3B0, 
n-h dopaxi EapcROfi o6aacTH^ Torjta xaEi bi jiicaxi c^BepHaro 
cBJiOHa raaBHaro xpeCxa OHt ho^th OTcyTCTByexi. OiiacTF, 

BOpOqeUl, Hi^BOTOpiia BSI C^BepBIIXl (jj)OpH'b MOrJIH DpOHHB- 

Hyxb Ha KaBEasi h Henocpe;(CTBeHHO ex c&Bepa, nai Espon. 
Poccin, HO Koae^HO TOabKO bt> Soaie nosaaee speiia; 8to 
rjiasHHUt odpasoifB ^opMu, CBOficxBeHHua hhsbhu'B CTenaui h 
CTenHHui ji'fecaMi. Boofime ayatHO saMtTHTL, ^to npe^tctaBH- 
TCJiH dBepaoS MBpHesojorHHecBod ^ayaEi cocpe;(OT04eBEi aa 
rjiaBBOHi. xpe^T'b KaBsasa, r^i oai jiepsaxca bi dojite buco- 
BBxi o($iacTaxi, BMeaHO 6% BepxaeMi noacb ji^cobi, b-b cy- 
6aai>nificBo3 h ajiBuificBOfi o6jiacTaxi>. Sa^cb, bi oco6eHBOCTB 
b:b aJiBniScEOit oSjaexH KaBsasa, T}^'b sapajiy ch thbh^ho rop» 
HUMB MypasBaMB {Myrm. ruhida, M. sulcinodis) asBByxi b 
xaKie, Easi Lasius alienus, L. flavus, Formica fusca, Mycho' 
thorax acervorum, Bcfe ea oSaxaxejia aojikbh 6bixb oqeaB 
jipeBaaro npoBcxoKAeaia: obh BecoMsibBHo cyn^ecxBOBajH sa^cb 
eu;e ao JieABBBOBaro nepioAa. Kx c^BepHiiH'B ^lopMaMi KaBsasa 
oxHOcaxca SoiBmaa tocxb npeACxaBBxejeft p. Formica, JiasiycH, 
MapMBBB, Tetram. caespitum, iiHxoxopaBCH, Camponotus hercu- 
leanus, Polyergus rufescens a a. Ap. 

CpexBeasiaxcsii: ^opHU npoBBSja aa KasKasi bsx Ty- 
paaa repeal apaAO-BacnificByio nycxuaio ci c^Bepo-BOCxoEa 
BJia nepesi IlepciK) cb loro^BOcxoEa. Hxi cpaBaaxejiBBO ae 



*) npo BToro uypasBfl, ciojii oCHKHOBeHBaio bi jiicaxi Espon. FocciK 
H SanaAHoft EaposH, sysHO aavJ^THTb, vto Ha EaBiasl ohi ptAoxi i pac- 
npocipaHeHi se ctuiomB, a npepHs^aTo, ocTpoBKaHi, x xaxeTca rjraBBHHi 
oOpasoxi CBodCTBeHi cochobbhi 6opaHi. 

8 



— 114 — 

i&Kh MHoro H OHH nonpeHMymccTBy pacnpoCTpaHeHH wh boctoi- 
aofi oSjiacTH KasKaaa, wMeHHO, b% npHfipeanofi noaoci Kacnifl- 
CKaro Mopa, hi AarecxaH* h b-b HHSMeHHOCTH BOCTOiHaro 3a- 
KasKasba, bi 6accefiH^ KypH. XapaBTepHuuH npe;i:cTaBBTej[aHH 
xypaHCSoS uapMeso^ayHU ea KaBBasi aBjaiorcfl: Camponotus 
interjedus, Formica clara, F. transcaucasica, Myrmecocystus 
setipes var. turkomanicus, Cremastog aster subdentata, Lepto- 
thorax satunini n Myrmica bergi. Hsi bhxx ocoSeeHaro bhh- 
Maflia sacJiyaiHBaiOTi Formica clara h F. transcaucasica — 
<|)opMKi MOsrojiBCBaro apoHcxox;ieHia. IXepsaa npBmjia aa Kaa- 
Kaai repeal. Apajto-KacaiflCKyio nycTUHio h ofipasoBajia xaMt 
oco6yK) pa3H0BH;iH0CTi> (t. caucasica); a F. transcaucasica no- 
BHABMOHy cpoHBEX Ha KaBsasi CB c^Bepa, nepesi K)ro-8aQaAHyio 
Ch6hpb.. Ha KasKaat ero pacnpoCTpaHCHie HeAOCxaToiHO BiiacHeHo; 
npHHa^^jiemBT'B ohx xauii B^poaxHO ropHocxenHOfi h ajBniflcROfl 
oSaacTaMi. TaKBMt-fflie nyxeiii, oneBH^tHO, nepeceJHJica Ha KaR- 
Ka3x B Leptoth. serviculus, ;^aB^ xaMi pasHOBBiHOCTB braune- 
ri ^). Hbi MypaBbeBi-cf)a8T0HiBK0B^ Ha KasKaai Bo;taxcfl ;iBa — 
TypBMeHCKia ^asTOH^BKi (v. turcomanicus) h nycxuHHHifl (de- 
serterum), o6pa3yK>mie nepexo^H Meat;ny coCoio; asi hex-b nep- 
bhS npoHCxo;iHx% oxi Myrm. setipes, pacnpocxpaHeHHaro b-b 
HH^ociaHi, naMBp-fi b IlepciB-, a BxopoiS atHBexi bx c^BepHoS 
A^pBB'fe, A^BCCHHiB B CbpIb. 06a 9XB ^aaxoH^BSa Bcxptna- 
loxca no noSepeasBio KacniflcKaro uopa h vh fiacceftHi KypM, He 
B;ia Bi. cieepy Eameica sa,a*e ^epfienxa, b Ha KaBKaai Moryxt 
cqBxaxBca xapasxepnuMB ^i& Bocxo^naro SasaBBasBfl. 

CNfiMpb. Bi MHpMeKOJiorH?ecBOM'B OTHomeHiH Cu6uph nosa 
MOKHO paajiiJHXB Ha 2 lacxH: Sanainyio h BocTOHHyio. Hai 

<IHCJia BC'J&X'B (|)OpH'B MypaSBeBB, BafixeHHHX'B XaU'B, BHeHHO OB. 

80, Ha AOJiK) 3anaAHoS Cb6bph upBxo^^Hxca 64, na aqjiso Boc- 



') S npeAuojiaraio, ito Ha EaBsasli AO-ixeH'B HaflTXCB co BpeiteHeu'B h 
Myrmoxenus gordiagini hjih CxHSKifi ii Heuy br;(i, TaEi KaES v% AarecTaHi 
HHon Cbjh notHaH'B 1 $ MypasBfl, ocTaaniiica He onpes'ijieHHHHi, ho Cxise 
Bcero noAxoAHsmit ki p. Myrmoxenus. S nocHJiaji'& ero $ o p e jtb k ohi 
coraacHacx cb hohhi MHlnieKi. 



— 115 — 

To^HoM 47 (|)opMi; HO HyaHO npHHaxB bo BKHjiaeie, qro Boc- 
TO^Haa ChShpb (ocoSeeHO YccypifiCKifi Kpaft) bi OTHoraeeiH 
MypaBbCBii noHTH soBce ae HscJii^OBaHa h bo BcaKOMi c^iyiai 
ea uHpiieROJiorHqecBafl (|)ayBa AOJiSHa 6htb ropasAO dorane. 06- 
mnxx ffie ^opMi. y o64hxx lacxefi CbShph Hii^exca 32. 

Bojibmaji ^acTb tropin SanadHoU Cu6upu, apocTHpaiomeMcfl 
aa BOCTOK'B npHi$JH3HTejiBH0 AO SaQaflsajBfl, o6ii;ia ci Espon. 
Pocciefi H EbpoqoS. $opMaMH caen^iajibHO CBofiCTBeHBHHH ei3 
HyacHO CHHTaxB cjiAyromaxi: 

Camponotus p. saxatilis L. servicalus 

Formica uraknsis Myrmica scabrinodis v. salina 

F. rufibarbis v. glauca M. scabrin. v. lacustris 

Myrmoxenus gordiagini M. sulcinodis v. nigripes 

Leptothorax stipaceus M. kasczenkoi 

Hsx BBxi F. uralensis h M. kascnenlcoi pacnpocxpaHaioxca 
10 3a6afiKa;iba. Ha sanaxi 6oJii>inaa ^acxb axHxi ^opMi jio- 
CTHrjH Ypajia u oxnacxa nepem^H ero; HacKoiBRo-ace Aaaeso B^yxx 
oeii Ha BOCTOKi, ocxaexca bi xo^hocth ho hsb^cxhuicb. Hsi yEa- 
saHHux-B ({jopui HaHdoi'&e oiHpoKopacnpocxpaHeHHbiM'B asjaexca 
30JiOTHCxoBo:iocEifi KauaoHoxyci {Camp, saxatilis), Koxopufi, xoxa 
H npoxoAHxi "^epesi bcio Cb6hpb, ho aaH^oji^e xapaBxepHBiMx 
XO-isseH-B c^HxaxbCH HHeHHO A-iia SaoaAHofi CadspB, vni on% 
Kpaflne o^EiBHOBeeeHi-, bi Bocxo?Hofi-ace Ch6hph ohi noBHAHUouy 
SHa^HxejiBHo 6oji'be p^AOBi h ^axe B'j^poaxHO cnopaAH^en'B, 
cxajiBHBaacB xant ci ?,njua 6jih8bhmh ({)opiiaMH — Gamp, ater- 
rimus a japonicus. Haai-B G. saxatilis unievh copoflHHefl He 
TOJiBEO Bi Asia, HO H Bx C4b. AuepHRi, b xpyffHO caasaxB, rjt 
y BBX-B Bcixi 6HJia nepBoaaHaiBaaa poAaaa — bt. Asia ajH b-b 
CtB. AiiepaB^. no Bcefi B'jbpoaxaocxa oaa act sexyTi aa^iaJio 
ox'B AP^BBflro poAB^a, au^Bmaro CBOfi i];eaxp'B npoaczoacAeaia 
rAt-HH(5yAB aa dsep^ Ca^Hpa erne b-b xpexaHHuB nepioix, a 
noxoHi oxcfOAa cb aacxyajieBieu'B aeAaasOBofl aooxa aocxeaeaao 
ABBraBmaroca aa lorB a bocxobi, pacnpocxaaasmaroca no Bceil 
Ca6Bpa HI MaaisypiK), KaxaS, Moaroiiio, HaAocxaai a bi 
■CiB. AaepBBy, pacaaBmacB npa stou'b aa a^jibiS pa^'B ^opHi. 

8* 



— 116 — 

Msi EHxi G. saxatilis dasie Bcero ctoht'b z% cbsepoauepHKaH- 
CKOMy pennsylvanicus (typ.) h anoHCKOMy (japonicus), ocofieHHC 
^0CJIt;^aeMy, h eme npe;iCTOHT'B piniHTB Bonpoci o(5i HXt hcthh- 
HHXi cooTHomeHiflxi; bx Bocto^hoS ate Ch6hph no scefl stpo- 
axHOCTH jKHsyrB nepexo^Hua ^opMH. 

Ci EBponofi (HCK.iK)qafl boctokx Espon. PoccIh) y 3ana;tHoa 
Cb6hph HMfieTca ok. 37 oSmaxx 4»opMt MypaBieBi. Hbx hhx^b 
HyatHO yKasait: 1) Aner gates atratulus, jKHBymifl bx re43;tax'b 
Tetram. caespitum h OTKpuxHfl noKa JiHinb Bt o;tHOM'B nyHKii- 
3anajtHo8 Ch6uph (ABHOJtHHCRaa o6ji.), — bhai BecBua saii'Jb- 
HatejiBHuS, cpafiHe HHTepecHuS no cbohmx 6iojiorH?ecBtiMi oco6eH- 
HOCTaMi; Bi Esp, Poccin oh^ ao chxi nopx He 6ujii Hafi;i;eH'i, 
H He noTOMy, ito6h ohi coBciiii ne Bo;iHJica Tarn, a BCJife;iCTBie 
cnopaiBHHOCTH ero M'^croHaxo^s^teHift h no TpyABOCiH oxucsaHia; 
uoxeTi>-6uTi> Aaxe bi Cii6hph, no xqaTejiBHOH'B nscji'^AOBaHiH, 
out. oKaKCTca $opMofi OMHiHOfi OTt SBponeficKofi; 2) Camp, 
vagus, KOTopufi, fiy^y^H pijOBx h cnopa;tHTCHi Ha boctok* 
Espon. Poccia, ne Bcxpiqaacx hh na Ypaji'fi, hh bt, TofiojibCKoft 
ry6., Hamejica nocji'j^ SHa^HxejibHaro nepepiiea bi cbochi pac- 
npocxpaHBHin bi EHHceficEofl ryS.; 3) Lasius carniolicus, pac- 
npocxpaHeHie Baioparo e-h 3an. Ch6hph Bnojia-h no^xBepat^aexi 
ero cnopajjBHHocxB. OciajBHue MypaBBH, o6mie SanaAHofl Ch(5hph 
H EBponi, oxjiH<iaK)xcfl Boo6nie niHpoEHM'B pacDpocxpaHenieux b 
HHqero saMinaxejiBHaro ne npejicxaB.iiaiox'B. 

Ci K)ra, HMeHHO ci loro-BocxoKa Eapon. PoccIh h h3i> Kap- 
rH3CKHXi cienefl, bi 3an. Cb6hpb 3axo;^ax^: Myrmec. cursor 
aenescens (caspius), Tetram. inerme, oxiacxH BipoaxHO xaBSce 
Strongylognathus christophi h Messor structor (v. muticus n 
orientalis). 

Ki Sana^Hofi Ch6hph HyatHO oihochxb b AAmaii, npeju- 
cxaBJiaioii^iS bi oxHomeBiH cBoefi ^ayuBi Boo6n;e h uBpHeso^tayBBi 
B'B lacxHocxH ipesBHHafiHHH HHxepeci, xaKt Kasi ohi no Bce8 
BtpoaxHOcxH CuAT) i^BHTpoMi pacopocxpaueBifl Bani ?m aana^HO- 
CBCBpcEHXi 4)opMi, xHKi H Ain MHorBXi eBponcficBO-pyccBBxi, 
Hanp. Formica uralensis, F. pressilabris, F. pratensis, Myr- 
moxenus gordiagini, Leptot'h. serviculus, Lasius carniolicus^ 



— 117 — 

Mychofhorax acervorum, Tomognathus sublaevis h jup. AjiTaB 
no CBOHMi ycJOBiaMi h no ^ayet AOJtaeHi 6HTt 6jih80kx k-b 
ypa-iy: xaui, aanpHM., HiiiioTca laitieae napKooSpasHHe Jiica 
asB OepesH h jiHCTBeHHHii;H, HaceaeaHHe Form, pressilabris, 
F. exsecta, F. uralensis, F. pratensis, — cocHOBne 6opH Ch Camp, 
herculeanus h saxatilis, — CKaJiBCTHC ckjohh h coiikh, Ha EOTopaxi 
lOTHTca CBoeo6pa3Haa ropHO-cxenHaa MHpjieKo^ayHa ^). ypaji^-ace 
B% CBOH) oHepeAB, KaKi 8X0 yjse rOBopajiocE., CBasuBaexca ni- 
EoxopHMi oSpasoMi Ch #HHMHiieK) H Boii, npH 6oiie 06- 
CTOHxejibHuxi zacA^noBa.aisx'h, mokcxx OKaaaxbca, hxo Bci 3th 
ipn oSjracTH — Ajixafl, ypaai h ^HHaaH^ia — ^pe;^cxaB;IaH)T^ xpn 
nocjiijioBaxejibHHe ii;eHxpa s-h pacnpocxpaHeHia h npoHCxoa^eHiH 
jEHBoxHHxi $opMi, ^BHraBmHxca H3X H)ro-3anasa Ch6hph b^ 
EBpon. Pocciio a SanaaayH) EBpony. 

BocmoHuaa CuGuph HMiexx 6oaie oape^'i^JieHHo BHpaKCH- 
Hyio MHpMeKOJorHiecKyK) (|»ayHy. Ett coficxseHHO npBHajjieataxi: 

Camponotus herculeanus v. Dolichoderus sibiricas 

whymperi Tapinoma sessile 

C. hercul. v. saehalinensis Mychothorax hirticornis v. 
C. aterrimus sibiricus 

C. quadrinotatus Myrmica angulinodis 

Formica truncicolaT.yessensis M. commarginata 
F. sanguinea v. mollesonae 

Cio;ia-ace Hajo eiij,e npHHHCJHXb Formica fusca nippo- 
nensis ^), aown^aroca hi HnoHiH. 

Bee 9X0 xapaKxepHHa (|)opMH, hbi Koxopuxi xpa, HMeHHo 
€. hercul. v. whymperi, Tapinoma sessile a Mych. hirtic. v. 
sibiricus — cfiBepoaHepHsaHCKaro ^poHCXoat;^eHifl. Form, truncicola 



') flHTepecHHMi uexAT npoqEHi (JiasToui bi siowb OTHomeHiK npeji- 
ADaBJiaeici Haxox4,eHie 6ixo6pE>iaro rjiysapi (Tetrao uroijallus uralensis 
VLenzb.) bx idxuomi Vpaa'i h ua Ajiiaft. 

") Oaihi aKseHiiJiep'B ^ aTofi pacii a nojyqBJi'B HeAasHo bs-b oEp. ct. 
FasAciBHoe, yccypiftcsoro spaa. Bi Manvxypia 91011, HypaBeS o<ieHi oCheho- 
BeneHi. 



— 118 — 

V. yessensis, C. hercul. v. sachalinensis a C. aterrimus sBJiaioTca 
nepeceaeBi^aMH hsi MaHiaiypiH hjh hsx flnoHin. Hb-b hhxb 
C. hercul. v. sachalinensis, xoxa wh npefltjiaxi Hamaxx Baa^tifeHifi 
H HSBtcTefl'B TOJibKo 031 CaxaJiHHa, eo jiojukch^ BCTpiqaTBca 
laBffie H Bx AMypcKoB h bi IIpHMopcEofl o6jiacTaxi., xaKi. KaK^ 
fiuA-h HaSjeHi Kb ManqmypiH h bi MoHrojia (870). 

KpoMt Toro Bi BocToiHofl Cb6hph HMieTCa ok. 25 (JopMi, 
OTJiaqaiomHxca Boofime raHpoKHUi pacupocTpaeCHieMX h BCip'fe- 
qaK)in,HXCfl Bi EBponi; HiKOTopua h3i hhxx hc Hafi^teHU eme 
Bi> 3ana;iHi)fl Ch6hph, aanpHM. Lasius mixtus h hrunneus, ho 

OHt HSBtCTHU Ch YpaJia Bt KOHeiHO CO BpeMeHeMX H T&Wh 

Hafiiytca. /I,oBo.ibHo 3a^aJ^0HH0 HaxoatjeHie bi HpHMOpcKoii o6ji.. 
(r. BjiajiHBOCTOKi) Cremastogaster laestrygon var. striaticeps, 
Bojamaroca bi c^BepHofi A(|)pHKi; Moatexi-fiHTb owb ^hjii 
cjyqafiHo saBescHi xyjia ct TOBapaMH, xaKx-aie KaKi h Pheidole 
megacephala. 

C^ CiBepHofi AMepHKog y BoctohhoM Ch6hph noKa h3- 
BicTHo ok. 15 oSmnxi 4>opM'^' 

K^ o6.iacTH BocTOiHofl Ch6hph a oxHomy xaaate h 3a- 
fiaiSEajiBe, xoxa co BpeMeaeMi ero, sblkt, HMtiomaro xicaoe cO' 
oxHomeaie c^ MoHro.JiieH, npH;iexca BH;^■6JIHXB bx KaqecxBi ox- 
jltjibHaro OEpyra. IIoEa mo. aero HSBicxHH xpa c^e^iaJlBHHa 
({)opMij: Form, sanguinea v. moUessonae, Myrmica angulinodis 
H commarginata, h31. EoxopBixi nocji'l;iHaa BeCBua xapaKxepaa. 
SaxtMx xaMx>, kohchho, Hafijyxca h ;ib4 woHrojiBCKia (|)opMKi — 
Proformica nasiita mongolica h Messor lobuliferus. 

TypaHi>. OSjacxB Typaua a npHHHMaK) bi x'fex^ rpaHHi];axi, 
EaE^ axo c^iijaHo iipo(J). A. M. H a e o .i b c e h m x b-b ero- 
onHcaaia apecuHKaromaxca a 3eMaoBOAHHXx, PoccifiCEOfi hm- 
nepia ^), x, e. a BEJiwqaio cio^ia bck) BaKacnifiCKyto a TypraficKyro 
oSjiacxa a KaprascKyK) cxens aa C3 ;^o aaiKHsro xeqeaia Bo.ira 
EpreaeJl. Bipoaxao bt> aacxoamee apena aaMi B3BicxB0 ae 
fiojiie noJiOBBHH Bcero cocxasa MapMeKOJioraiecKOfi f ayaa Typaaa^ 
xaKi KaKi xaBie ofiraHpaue pafioHH ero saEi. TaaB-IIIaHB, Tap- 



1. cit,., cTp. 459. 



— 119 — 

fioratafi h h. ;ip. apejCTasaaioTx bi MHpiieKOJiorH^ecBOMi ot- 
HomcHiH terra incognita. Mh* jihhho na Micxt npHniJiocB 
noaaaKOMHTbca Ch MHpMeKo4)ayHofi Typana TOJitKo hi KaprHSCKOtt 
CTCHH, npeflctaBJiaiomefi ero spafiHifi (JtopnocTt Hasauajti; cst- 
i^Hia oCt ocTajibHuxx MtcTHocxaxi ero uh HM'ieMi hsi c6opoBi, 
ci%jaHHUX^ jiHioB 6o:ii'be hjih Hen'ie noayTHO pasjiHqHiiHH na- 
TypajiHcraMH. 

MEpMeKOJoraqecKaa ^ayaa Typaaa, cocToan;aa bt. aacxoainee 
speMa H31 119 $opMx, co»epaHrb bx ce6'fe MaBEHMX odpasoMi 
4 rpyuDH 4>opM't paBaaqnaro apoBCXoa;;teHia. O^Hi $opMu 
npaaasaeffiaxi kx npeffCTaBaTe4aMx CpeAaaeMHOMopcKOfl no- 
joGaacTB a oTiacia npoaaKia bt, TypaH% cb aanaaa ^epesi. Maayio 
AbIh), MeaonoTaBiiio a IlepciK); jpyria cyTb buxowh HHSOCTaaa; 
TpexbB npaniJiH ch BOCTOKa, hbx nycTHBB MoHrojiia a Tafieia; 
HaKoaeni, qexBepxHa cafiapcKaro npoBcxoat;i;eBia— axo $opMEi 
cSBcpaua, no npeHMyni,ecxBy JiicaHS, cxenaHa hjih ropawa, 
nepecejiBBmiaca bx TypKecxaat chC a CB asi CaGapa lepea-b 
Aaxafi ^). 

K-B nepBofi rpynn'l, Koxopaa BaaaMaexi co6cxBeHao Typ- 
Kecxaai a SaKacniflcByio oSjiacxB, npBaa;iaemaxi. xaKie bw^u a 
pacH, KaRT. Camponotus dichrsus, C. aethiops, C lateralis, 
G. fedtschenkoi, C. xerxes, Pro/ormica nasuta, Myrmecocystus 
albicans, bicolor, sefipes, altisquamis, pallidus, aenescens, Acan- 
tholepis frauenfeldii, Plagiol. pygmaea, saxijii. $opMU aat 
ponoBi Bothriomyrmex, Tapinoma, Monomorium, Gardiocon- 
dyla a Pheidole, Messor structor, Gremastogaster auberti a up. 



^) EcTB eu^e boshoxhoctb AonyciHTB npoHHEBOBeHie cisepHHX'B (Jjopux 
(njiH noEpaftueft uibpt HiEoropHX'B hsi hexi) b% Typaui, a sattMi k b% Bh- 
AocTaHi, CB sana^a. KaKi h ua KaBEasi, ^epesx BaaBaECEiS noiyocTpoB'B, Ma- 
ayio Aaiio h ctBepHya IIepci», HHeHUO no ropHHM% xpeeiaHi B.iBCypci, Koaeti- 
jlarx, A^a-Aan H rnHAYEymB, ho xo ij^xi nopx nojca bc$ bth kIcthocth He 
CyAyii HscjinoBaHH m, MHpHeROJiom^ecEou'B oiHomeHiH, Tasoe nonymeHie 
ocTaHeics Epaftue npofiJieMaTH^HHUi. HaEOBen.'B, ecjiH naxe BHmeyEaaaHHiiH 
cbBepHHS 4iopHH MypaBBOBrB u 6yAyTi HaSAfiHS ua uasBaHHHX'B xpefiTax'B, to 
BceTaBR eme nyxuo fiyAei-B AOEasait, ito oH'b A'i^CTBaTejiBHo upoBasjiH Tysa 
CB sanaAa, a ho cx BocioEa. 



— 120 — 

Bxopyio rpynny cocxaB-iaiOTi Myrmica rugosa, M. smythiesi, 
Camp, buddhae, TaKate Camp, tichomirovi, BOTopuS 6jiHse Bcero 
CTOHTi Ki HH^iScBOMy C. palUdus Sra.; bcJs bth (j^opHti npeioJiB: 
Hsi cisepHOfi HH;iiH, h3i oSjracTH PHMajiaeBx, h CBOficTBeHHu 
IlaMHpy CeMHpiibK). Kx ^opwaMi. HHjiflcKaro npoHCxo^jieHia 
HVHHO eme npHMHCJHTb Pheidole megacephala, ec^ia osa ^itfi- 
CTBHxejbHo Hafl;teTca bi TypsecTaH-fe, h saxiMi Monomorium 
graciUimiim, Koxopafl npoHHKi. bt, 3aKacnificKyK) 061. vst, Hh- 
;iiB nepesi Uepciio; bh;ix axoxi oxjiaqaexca o^inHpHEiHi} pa- 
cnpocxpaHCHieMi, ho pojiHHa ero B^jpoaxHO HaxojiHica hi. loacBOfi 
Ocxi-HHjiiH, oxKvjia oht> h pacnpocTpaHHJca k^ lory Ha ocxpo- 
Ba Taxaro oKeaaa h ki. aanajy bx A(J)pHKy qepeai IlepciH), 
CHpiro ApaBiio. Lasius emeryi a flavescens xasHte dobhah- 
MOMy HMiioxi CBOHXi SjBffiafifflHXi po/THieS Bi Ha^ocxaHi; 
CBoefi CituHo-aiejixofi hjih KopaqaeBaxo-ffiejixofi ospacBoS ohh 
OT.iHqaioxca oxb Bctx^ jtpyrHxi eBponeScEHXi copojiBiefi Las. 
niger s. ext., ki rpynni Koxoparo ohh npHHa^tJieaaxi. Tpexta 
rpynna xypaHCKHxi <j[)opMi iieHTpajbHO-asiaxcKaro npoHCXoatA©- 
Hia; oHa saHHMaexx BocxoHHHa oKpaHHti TypaHa, rjiaBHHiii 06- 
pa30M% CcMHpiqbe, Kyjia ea c[)opMu npoHHKJin bsi MoHro;iiH 
H Moaterx 6hxi> TnGexa. Ki hhm% oxHocaxca Messor lobuliferus 
V. excursionis, Cremastogaster suhdentata, Formica clara a 
Myrmica dschungarica. HecoMntHHO nafiiexca xaKJKe bt, Ty- 
pani H Form, transcaucasica. 

CiBepHHMH BHxojmaMH Bi TypaH* aBjiaioxcfl: Formica 
truncicola, F. pratensis, F. pressilabris, F. sanguinea, F. 
fusca, F. gagates, Campon. herculeanus, Lasius niger, L. ali- 
enus, Tetramor. caespitum, Mychofhorax acervorum, Myrmica 
ruginodis, laevinodis, scabrinodis h lobicornis. $opMH axH sa- 
HHMaioxx Bt TypKecxaH'fe raaBEHMt oSpaaoMX cxenH, Jiica h-ih 
BHCOKia o6jacxH ropi. 

KpoMi BHmeyEaaaHHHxx npeAcxaBHxejiefi MHpMeBO(|)ayHH 
Typana mh sji'bch BCxpinaeMi h ^i^ui pa^i aHxeiiaqecKHXt 
4)opMi, flBHBmHxca npojiyBxoMi MicxHHXi ycjiOBifi. E% xaKHMt 
(|)opMaMi oxHocHxca npemjie Bcero rpyniia xexpaMopiyMOsx ch 
CEyabnxHpoBaHHHMi. (JpioraKOM'b (Tetram. schneideri, T, stria- 



— 121 — 

tiventre, T. caespit. v. reticuliventre). /I^Jia BCefi arofl rpynna 
TypaHi 6hji i^eHTpoMi npoHcxoaienia, B-b noca-feffCTBia on. 
Hea 0T;t4jiHJica Tetram. sericeiventre, »HBymift bi Ac{>Phb*. 
SaiiMi cKja npHHaff;ieKaTi: Solenopsis deserticola, Ischno' 
myrmex rhaphidiiceps, Proformica aberrans, Leptothorax se- 
menovi, L. satunini, Myrmecocystus pallidus, Myrm. foreli, 
Stenamma asiaticum, Monomorium harhatulum, Fheidole ko- 
shetvnikovi, Myrmica hergi, M. stangeana, M. saposhnikovi h 
nitjafi pfl;i;i pasHOSHAHOCTefi. Mnorie H31 sthxi MypasbeBi 
ycnijH pacnpocTpaHHTbca hsi csoero j^eHipa bi Ilepciio, Ma- 
.lyK) AaiK), na KasKasi h b-b ApaaiK). HiEOTopue npoin.iH bi 
^tpyroui HaapaBiemH, HHeHHO Ha C3, ?.o CapeaTii. 

Bet 8TH 9H^eMHHecEia 4>opMH Hy»HO CHHiaTB xapaKTep- 

BUMB J(Jia BOCTOHHOfi HaCTB CpejHSeHHOHOpCKOfi QO^OfijaCTH, b-b 

npei'^JTH KOTopofl BxojtHTi TypaHx. Cji4;toBaTeJiBHO Bci boctoi- 
Ho-cpejH3eMHOMopcEia $opMH 3^tcB oSpasyioT'B IB* rpynuH. 
OepBaa cocToarB tust, <|»opMi, paBBHBniHxca aa aanaii, KaEi, 
HanpHM., 4)a9TOHqHKH H up., EOTopna orry^a hotomi nepece- 
jHJiBCb Bi TypaHi qepesi Maayio Asiio h Ilepciio; (|k)pmh 8th 
Sojie HOBHa. Jtpyraa rpynna npeitcTaBJEaerB co6ok) oOopHreaoBx 
cTpaHH, odpasoBaBniHxca s^ticB AasHO hsi nepBona^aJiBHHXi 
^opMs, npBine;i;raHXi bx Typae-B hbx HnjiH h mokct-b-Smtb 
OTiacTH yate BHMepniHxi. 9t0 OT;iajeHHBie buxo^ji^h iponHHe- 
CEofi HsjiiH b-b oneHB jpcBHee spcMa ^epesx Typaat h boctoh- 
HHfl HfljocTaHi pacnpocipaHHJHCB noBH^iiHMOMy a no BceS Cpe- 
^[HseMHOMopcEoa no?;o6jacTH, f.a.s'h aa^ajio BM'IcT'fe cb Eopea- 
HUMH ea 4>opMauH BceS coBpeHeaHofi cpeAHseMHOMopcEofi vap- 
HeEo^aya^. 

■B-B npe^ijiax'B Typaaa npem;i;e Bcero BH^iJiaeTca Apcuo- 
nacniitcKaa oSAacmb cb lasaMa xapaExepauua iiypaBBauH EaE'B 
Myrm. foreli, M. pallidus, Solenopsis deserticola, Gardiocond. 
elegans v. uljanini, C. st v. koshewnikovi, Myrmica hergi, M. stan- 
geana, M. rugosa v. kirgisica, Leptothor. semenovi, Cremastog. 
^ubdentata v. flavicapilla, Monomor. harhatulum, Camp, tur- 
kestanus a ^p.; saiiM-B — coficTBenao Typnecmam ex Profwm. 
^aherrans, Stenamma asiaticum, Ischnomyrm. rhaphidiiceps. 



— 122 — 

Camp, turJcestanicus, C. fedtschenkoi; j[.8ksie — CeMuprbUbe ct 
Messor lobuliferus v. excursionis, Myrm. dshurgarica, M. sa- 
poshnikovi, Tetram. schneideri; HaKOHe^^ IlaMupz ci bocto^hoA 
Byxapofi, jt^a kotophx-b BCCBMa THnnraHMH aBJHioTca: Lasius 
emeryi, L. flavescens, Leptoth. ozianus, L. bulgaricus v. mel- 
leus, L. pamiricus, Myrm. laevinodis v, minuta, Cremasto- 
gaster h&gojawlenskii, Prof, aberrans v. nitidior, Camp, fed- 
tschenkoi V. mayri h meTHHHCTOHorifi (|)a8T0HiHKi. (Myrmecocystus 
setipes). KoHeiHO bt, ofijiacTH Typaea HjuiioTca h jipyria xa- 
paKiepHHa m^cthocth, HanpHM. TaHfc-IIIaHb, ho sa HCHM'iHieM'B 
HyaHHxi jiiaHHuxi 06% hhxi HH^ero He^Bsa roBopsTb. 

3aKaH<iBBaa aiy rjiasy HHpueKO^orHqecKHX'B yqaCTKaxt 
PocciH, KOTopHe MoryTt 6htb h o6me30OJiorHHecBHMH yiacTBaMH, 
a AOJix.eu'h saMiiHTb, bx saB^ijoieHie, ito npn onHcamH axi a 
He Mori B^aBaTBca bt, Kasia HaCyiB ^teiajiH no HeffOcraTKy Bt 
^o-ibraHHCTBi c^iynacBi HeodxoiHMHX'b MaTcpiajiOBX. 06% o^enb 
MHoroM-B npHXo;iHJiocB jiHuib jiora<5HBaTBca, MHoroe o(5o6maTB Ha 
ocHOBaniH anajioria, IIosTOMy h BHmeonHcaHHHC ynacTKH a 
HaMiTHM TOJbBO Bi o6mHxi. lepxax'b, npe^tociaBjaa Cy^iiymBMi 
H3CJi'fe;ioBaTejiaH'B ^onojiHHTb h pasBHTb cKaaaHHoe sjs/ba, pasHO 
KaBb H HcnpaBHTb BBpaBniiaca oniHSBH. 



^eisepToe sonojuHeaie k^ cimcKy jraiepaiypH m 

MypaBLflMii. 

96$. PyacKift, M. CnHCOKT> MypasEeB^ MHHCKoft ryBepHm, co6- 
paHHHXTj aKcneAHuiefl MocKOBCKaro cTyjceH^iecKaro 
KpyjKKa. Tp. Gryj,. Kpy^KKa npH Mockcbck. yhhb., 
T. III. i907 r. 

966. — Kt> 4>ayirb MypaBtcB-i, BH-icHCKoft ry6epHiH. Ibid. 

1907 r. 

967. Wheeler, W. M. A Collection of Ants from Britisch Hondu- 

ras. Bull, of the Americ. Museum of Natur. History. 
Vol. XXIII, Art. 15, pp. 271—277. 1907. Plate: 
XI-XII. 



.3aM'fe»ieHHMH one^iaTKH. 



Cmp. CmpoKa. 

10 16 CBepxy 
15 16 . 
22 4 CHHsy 

4 « 
18 « 
6 CBepxy 
2 CHHsy 
11 CBepxy 
1 « 

Bi lafijiHiit Ha cip. 33 nponymeHH HaxoxAeHix Camp, aethiojis Bt 
Typani; Ha cip. Z^—Myrmecocystus aenescene b% CaCnpH; na cTp. 38— Strow- 
gylognathus christophi bi TypaH*. OhihOo^ho yKaaaHO HaxosaeHie Camponotus 
lifjniperdus (cip. 33) X Strongylogn. christophi (oip. 38) bt, CaCHpH. 

IIpuMti^anie. 63 cnHCEaxi MypaBieBi HacTOflnteA paCoTU paftH coxpa- 
ueHia MicTa H Bi BHAy Toro, ^To 8Ta paCoTa ue HMlieTi. cHCTeiiaTH^ecEaro 
xapaETepa, bi (SojiinHHCTsJb cay^aeBi npH ofiosHa^emR hoaposob'b b paci 
DnynieBii hx-b poaobhx h BH;ioBBa HasBaEia. 



23 
25 
30 
41 
S5 
95 



HaneHamauo. 

KpSae 

mangiiiatns 

THficia 

myxtus 

Lasius niger 

pacnpocTpaneHiH) 

Icurdica 

HXl EaEl 

nec^aHHyEO 



CArbdyemz uumamb 

EpafiHe 

tnarginatns 

TsfieTa, iHHaJiaeBi 

mixtus 

Lasius niger s. str. 

pacmBpeHin 

var. Tiurdica 

xx%, KaEl 

necqaHyE) 



OncMaTKH, npoiiymeHHHH b-b 1-h qacTH 

pa6oTH. 



Cmp. 


Cmpom. 


Hanenamam. 


CAtbdyetm numamh 


151 


11 CBepxy 


250 


26a 


226 


7 . 


Bi Gh6hph (BajiTHMi). 


B'B cpeAHeiCB Ypa^^l, Esa- 
TepHHCyprcK. y. (BaJiTHM^). 


243 


5 cHHsy 


nojoBHHi n 


HoaoBHEli anplijia b 


265 


6 CBepxy 


H rojieneft ci 


H rOJieBE CB 


— 


7 « 


H rojiened Geai 


K rojieHH Ceai 


352 


17 cHHsy 


1900 


1899 


399 


5 CBepxy 


■?, 5 « y 


9 « <J 


738 


13 « 


Eyjasa 4 yrojiiHaa 


roaoBa 4 yroisHaa 


761 


11 « 


Bittei 


Battel 



OrJIABJIEHIE. 

Hpe^HMOBie . . . . . 1- — 2. 

TpcTLC ^tonoaHCHie rs cnHCRy JHTepaxypH no 
MypaBiHM'B 3 — 7k 

Ofimifl oSsopi MHpMeBOJiorHHecKoft (|>ayHH POcciH. 8 — 27. 
Ofiaopi pacnpe^iJieHifl pyccKBxi MypaBBesx no 
cxai^aMi 27 — 102. 

Odaopx MHpiieBOJorH^ecKOfl ^avHti Poccih no 
yqacTBaMi . 102 — 122. 

^exBepxoe ;^o^o;IHeHie ei cnBCsy aaxepaxypH no 

MypaBBHMx 123. 

SaMiieHHHa one^axKH . . . . . ..... . 124*